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|Hα surface photometry of galaxies in nearby clusters|
We present the Hα imaging observations of 273 late-type galaxiesin the nearby rich galaxy clusters Virgo, A 1367, Coma, Cancer, Herculesand in the Great Wall, carried out primarily with the 2.1 m telescope ofthe San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPM) and with the ESO/3.6 m telescope.We derived the Hα+[NII] fluxes and equivalent widths. The Hαsurvey reached completion for an optically selected sample of nearbygalaxies in and outside rich clusters. Taking advantage of thecompleteness of the data set, the dependence of Hα properties onthe Hubble type was determined for late-type galaxies in the Virgocluster. Differences in the gaseous content partly account for the largescatter of the Hα EW within each Hubble-type class. We studied theradial distributions of the Hα EW around Coma+A 1367 and the Virgoclusters in two luminosity bins. Luminous galaxies show a decrease intheir average Hα EW in the inner ~1 virial radius, whilelow-luminosity galaxies do not show this trend.
|M/L, Hα Rotation Curves, and H I Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals. I. Data|
A survey of 329 nearby galaxies (redshift z<0.045) has been conductedto study the distribution of mass and light within spiral galaxies overa range of environments. The 18 observed clusters and groups span arange of richness, density, and X-ray temperature and are supplementedby a set of 30 isolated field galaxies. Optical spectroscopy taken withthe 200 inch (5 m) Hale Telescope provides separately resolved Hαand [N II] major-axis rotation curves for the complete set of galaxies,which are analyzed to yield velocity widths and profile shapes, extents,and gradients. H I line profiles provide an independent velocity widthmeasurement and a measure of H I gas mass and distribution. I-bandimages are used to deconvolve profiles into disk and bulge components,to determine global luminosities and ellipticities, and to checkmorphological classification. These data are combined to form a unifieddata set ideal for the study of the effects of environment upon galaxyevolution.
|The gas content of peculiar galaxies: Strongly interacting systems|
A study of the gas content in 1038 interacting galaxies, essentiallyselected from Arp, Arp & Madore, Vorontsov-Velyaminov catalogues andsome of the published literature, is presented here. The data on theinterstellar medium have been extracted from a number of sources in theliterature and compared with a sample of 1916 normal galaxies. The meanvalues for each of the different ISM tracers (FIR, 21 cm, CO lines,X-ray) have been estimated by means of survival analysis techniques, inorder to take into account the presence of upper limits. From the datait appears that interacting galaxies have a higher gas content thannormal ones. Galaxies classified as ellipticals have both a dust and gascontent one order of magnitude higher than normal. Spirals have in mostpart a normal dust and HI content but an higher molecular gas mass. TheX-ray luminosity also appears higher than that of normal galaxies ofsame morphological type, both including or excluding AGNs. We consideredthe alternative possibilities that the molecular gas excess may derivefrom the existence of tidal torques which produce gas infall from thesurrounding regions or from a different metallicity which affects the Xconversion factor between the observed CO line luminosity and the H_2calculated mass. According to our tests, it appears that interactinggalaxies possess a higher molecular mass than normal galaxies but with asimilar star formation efficiency.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/941
|UV and FIR selected samples of galaxies in the local Universe. Dust extinction and star formation rates|
We have built two samples of galaxies selected at 0.2 μm (hereafterUV) and 60 μm (hereafter FIR) covering a sky area of 35.36deg2. The UV selected sample contains 25 galaxies brighterthan AB0.2=17. All of them, but one elliptical, are detectedat 60 μm with a flux density larger or equal to 0.2 Jy. The UV countsare significantly lower than the Euclidean extrapolation towardsbrighter fluxes of previous determinations. The FIR selected samplecontains 42 galaxies brighter than f60=0.6 Jy. Except fourgalaxies, all of them have a UV counterpart at the limiting magnitudeAB0.2=20.3 mag. The mean extinction derived from the analysisof the FIR to UV flux ratio is 1 mag for the UV selected sample and2 mag for the FIR selected one. For each sample we compare severalindicators of the recent star formation rate (SFR) based on the FIRand/or the UV emissions. We find linear relationships with slopes closeto unity between the different SFR indicator, which means that, over thewhole converting offset. Various absolute calibrations for both samplesare discussed in this paper. A positive correlation between extinctionand SFR is found when both samples are considered together although witha considerable scatter. A similar result is obtained when using the SFRnormalized to the optical surface of the galaxies.Tables 3, 4 and Fig. 1 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|Tidally Triggered Star Formation in Close Pairs of Galaxies. II. Constraints on Burst Strengths and Ages|
Galaxy-galaxy interactions rearrange the baryons in galaxies and triggersubstantial star formation; the aggregate effects of these interactionson the evolutionary histories of galaxies in the universe are poorlyunderstood. We combine B- and R-band photometry and optical spectroscopyto estimate the strengths and timescales of bursts of triggered starformation in the centers of 190 galaxies in pairs and compact groups.Based on an analysis of the measured colors and EW(Hα), wecharacterize the preexisting and triggered populations separately. Thebest-fitting burst scenarios assume stronger reddening corrections forline emission than for the continuum and continuous star formationlasting for >~100 Myr. The most realistic scenarios require aninitial mass function that is deficient in the highest mass stars. Thecolor of the preexisting stellar population is the most significantsource of uncertainty. Triggered star formation contributessubstantially (probably >~50%) to the R-band flux in the centralregions of several galaxies; tidal tails do not necessarily accompanythis star formation. Many of the galaxies in our sample have bluercenters than outskirts, suggesting that pre- or nonmerger interactionsmay lead to evolution along the Hubble sequence. These objects wouldappear blue and compact at higher redshifts; the older, redder outskirtsof the disks would be difficult to detect. Our data indicate thatgalaxies with larger separations on the sky contain weaker, and probablyolder, bursts of star formation on average. However, confirmation ofthese trends requires further constraints on the colors of the olderstellar populations and on the reddening for individual galaxies.
|The Tully-Fisher Relation as a Measure of Luminosity Evolution: A Low-Redshift Baseline for Evolving Galaxies|
We use optical rotation curves to investigate the R-band Tully-Fisherproperties of a sample of 90 spiral galaxies in close pairs, covering arange of luminosities, morphological types, and degrees of tidaldistortion. The galaxies follow the Tully-Fisher relation remarkablywell, with the exception of eight distinct ~3 σ outliers. Althoughmost of the outliers show signs of recent star formation, gasdynamicaleffects are probably the dominant cause of their anomalous Tully-Fisherproperties. Four outliers with small emission-line widths have verycentrally concentrated line emission and truncated rotation curves; thecentral emission indicates recent gas infall after a close galaxy-galaxypass. These four galaxies may be local counterparts to compact, bluegalaxies at intermediate redshift. The remaining galaxies have anegligible offset from the reference Tully-Fisher relation, but ashallower slope (2.6 σ significance) and a 25% larger scatter. Weargue that triggered star formation is a significant contributor to theslope difference. We characterize the nonoutlier sample with measures ofdistortion and star formation to search for third-parameter dependencein the residuals of the TF relation. Severe kinematic distortion is theonly significant predictor of TF residuals; this distortion is not,however, responsible for the slope difference from the referencedistribution. Because the outliers are easily removed by sigma clipping,we conclude that even in the presence of some tidal distortion,detection of moderate (>~0.5 mag in rest-frame R) luminosityevolution should be possible with high-redshift samples the size of this90-galaxy study. The slope of the TF relation, although difficult tomeasure, is as fundamental for quantifying luminosity evolution as thezero-point offset. Some observations reported in this paper wereobtained at the Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, a facilityoperated jointly by the University of Arizona and the SmithsonianInstitution.
|The Properties of Poor Groups of Galaxies. III. The Galaxy Luminosity Function|
The form of the galaxy luminosity function (GLF) in poor groups-regionsof intermediate galaxy density that are common environments forgalaxies-is not well understood. Multiobject spectroscopy and wide-fieldCCD imaging now allow us to measure the GLF of bound group membersdirectly (i.e., without statistical background subtraction) and tocompare the group GLF with the GLFs of the field and of rich clusters.We use R-band images in 1.5×1.5 degree2 mosaics toobtain photometry for galaxies in the fields of six nearby(2800=MR>-19+5logh) to giants(MR<=-19+5logh) is significantly larger for the fivegroups with luminous X-ray halos than for the one marginallyX-ray-detected group; (2) the composite GLF for the luminous X-raygroups is consistent in shape with two measures of the composite R-bandGLF for rich clusters (Trentham; Driver et al.) and flatter at the faintend than another (α~-1.5 Smith et al.); (3) the composite groupGLF rises more steeply at the faint end than the R-band GLF of the LasCampanas Redshift Survey (LCRS; α=-0.7 from Lin et al.), a largevolume survey dominated by galaxies in environments more rarefied thanluminous X-ray groups; (4) the shape difference between the LCRS fieldand composite group GLFs results mostly from the population ofnon-emission line galaxies (EW [O II]<5 Å), whosedwarf-to-giant ratio is larger in the denser group environment than inthe field (cf. Ferguson & Sandage; Bromley et al.); and (5) thenon-emission line dwarfs are more concentrated about the group centerthan the non-emission line giants, except for the central, brightest(MR
|An X-Ray Survey of Galaxies in Pairs|
Results are reported from the first survey of X-ray emission fromgalaxies in pairs. The sample consists of 52 pairs of galaxies from theCatalog of Paired Galaxies whose coordinates overlap the ROSAT PositionSensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations. The mean observedlogl_X for early-type pairs is 41.35+/-0.21, while the mean logl_Xpredicted using the l_X-l_b relationship for isolated early-typegalaxies is 42.10+/-0.19. With 95% confidence, the galaxies in pairs areunderluminous in the X-ray, compared with isolated galaxies, for thesame l_b. A significant fraction of the mixed pair sample also appearssimilarly underluminous. A spatial analysis shows that the X-rayemission from pairs of both types typically has an extent of ~10-50 kpc,much smaller than the group intergalactic medium, and thus likelyoriginates from the galaxies. CPG 564, the most X-ray luminousearly-type pair, 4.7x10^42 ergs s^-1, is an exception. The extent of itsX-ray emission, greater than 169 kpc, and HWHM, ~80 kpc, is comparableto that expected from an intergalactic medium. The sample shows only aweak correlation, ~81% confidence, between l_X and l_b, presumably dueto variations in gas content within the galaxies. No correlation betweenl_X and the pair velocity difference (Deltav), separation (Deltar), orfar-infrared luminosity (l_fir) is found, although the detection rate islow, 22%.
|The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data|
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.
|Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxies|
Using images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC).
|The Properties of Poor Groups of Galaxies. I. Spectroscopic Survey and Results|
We use multifiber spectroscopy of 12 poor groups of galaxies to address(1) whether the groups are bound systems or chance projections ofgalaxies along the line of sight; (2) why the members of each group havenot already merged to form a single galaxy, despite the groups' highgalaxy densities, short crossing times, and likely environments forgalaxy-galaxy mergers; and (3) how galaxies might evolve in thesegroups, where the collisional effects of the intragroup gas and thetidal influences of the global potential are weaker than in richclusters. Each of the 12 groups has fewer than about five catalogedmembers in the literature. Our sample consists of 1002 galaxyvelocities, 280 of which are group members. The groups have meanrecessional velocities between 1600 and 7600 km s-1. Nine groups,including three Hickson compact groups, have the extended X-ray emissioncharacteristic of an intragroup medium (see Paper II). We conclude thefollowing: 1. The nine poor groups with diffuse X-ray emission are boundsystems with at least ~20-50 group members with absolute magnitudes asfaint as MB ~ -14 + 5 log10 h to -16 + 5 log10 h. The large number ofgroup members, the significant early-type population (up to ~55% of themembership) and its concentration in the group center, and thecorrespondence of the central, giant elliptical with the optical andX-ray group centroids argue that the X-ray groups are not radialsuperpositions of unbound galaxies. The velocity dispersions of theX-ray groups range from 190 to 460 km s-1. We are unable to determine ifthe three non-X-ray groups, which have lower velocity dispersions(<130 km s-1) and early-type fractions (=0%), are also bound. 2.Galaxies in each X-ray-detected group have not all merged togetherbecause a significant fraction of the group mass lies outside of thegalaxies and in a common halo. The velocity dispersion of the combinedgroup sample is constant as a function of radius out to the virialradius of the system (typically ~0.5 h-1 Mpc). The virial mass of eachgroup (~0.5-1 x 1014 h-1 Mȯ) is large compared with the mass in theX-ray gas and in the galaxies (e.g., ~1 x 1012 h-5/2 Mȯ and ~1 x1013 h-1 Mȯ, respectively, in NGC 533). These results imply thatmost of the group mass is in a common, extended halo. The small fraction(~10%-20%) of group mass associated with individual galaxies suggeststhat the rate of galaxy-galaxy interactions is lower than for agalaxy-dominated system, allowing these groups to virialize before allof their galaxies merge and to survive for more than a few crossingtimes. 3. The position of the giant, brightest elliptical in each X-raygroup is indistinguishable from the center of the group potential, asdefined by the mean velocity and the projected spatial centroid of thegroup galaxies. This result suggests that dominant cluster ellipticals,such as cD galaxies, may form via the merging of galaxies in the centersof poor group-like environments. Groups with a central, dominantelliptical may then fall into richer clusters. This scenario explainswhy cD galaxies do not always lie in the spatial and kinematic center ofrich clusters but instead occupy the centers of subclusters innonvirialized clusters. 4. The fraction of early-type galaxies in thepoor groups varies significantly, ranging from that characteristic ofthe field (<~25%) to that of rich clusters (~55%). The highearly-type fractions are particularly surprising because all of thegroups in this sample have substantially lower velocity dispersions (bya factor of ~2-5) and galaxy number densities (by a factor of ~5-20)than are typical of rich clusters. Hence, the effects of disruptivemechanisms like galaxy harassment on the morphology of poor groupgalaxies are weaker than in cluster environments. In contrast, thekinematics of poor groups make them preferred sites for galaxy-galaxymergers, which may alter the morphologies and star formation historiesof some group members. If galaxy-galaxy interactions are not responsiblefor the high early-type fractions, it is possible that the effects ofenvironment are relatively unimportant at the current epoch and that thesimilarity of the galaxy populations of rich clusters and some poorgroups reflects conditions at the time of galaxy formation. 5. Thefraction of early-type group members that have experienced starformation within the last ~2 h-1 Gyr is consistent with that in richclusters with significant substructure (~15%). If some of thesubclusters in these rich, complex clusters are groups that haverecently fallen into the cluster environment, the similarity between thestar formation histories of the early types in the subclusters and ofthose in our sample of field groups indicates that the clusterenvironment and associated mechanisms like ram pressure stripping arenot required to enhance and/or quench star formation in these particulargalaxies. If the recent star formation is tied to the externalenvironment of the galaxies and not to internal instabilities, it ismore likely that galaxy-galaxy encounters have altered the starformation histories of some early-type galaxies in groups and insubclusters.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|21 CM H1 Line Spectra of Galaxies in Nearby Clusters|
A compilation of HI line fluxes, systemic velocities and line widths ispresented for \Ndet detected galaxies, mostly in the vicinities of 30nearby rich clusters out to a redshift of z ~ .04, specifically for usein applications of the Tully-Fisher distance method. New 21 cm HI lineprofiles have been obtained for ~ 500 galaxies in 27 Abell clustersvisible from Arecibo. Upper limits are also presented for \Nnod galaxiesfor which HI emission was not detected. In order to provide ahomogeneous line width determination optimized for Tully-Fisher studies,these new data are supplemented by the reanalysis of previouslypublished spectra obtained both at Arecibo and Green Bank that areavailable in a digital archive. Corrections for instrumental broadening,smoothing, signal-to-noise and profile shape are applied, and anestimate of the error on the width is given. When corrected forturbulent broadening and viewing angle, the corrected velocity widthspresented here will provide the appropriate line width parameter neededto derive distances via the Tully-Fisher relation.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Observations of binary galaxies at a frequency of 102 MHz|
A total of 93 double galaxies from the Karachentsev list was observedwith the large phased array at the Lebedev Physical Institute at 102MHz. The interplanetary oscillation method was used. Two of the galaxieswere found to contain scintillating components with angular dimensionsof less than 1 arcsec and flux densities of more than 1 Jy. Theobservations of double galaxies at low radio frequencies indicate thatgalaxies in pairs are more active than single galaxies.
|The Cancer Cluster - an unbound collection of groups|
A surface density contour map of the Cancer Cluster derived from galaxycounts in the Zwicky catalog is presented. The contour map shows thatthe galaxy distribution is clumpy. When this spatial distribution iscombined with nearly complete velocity information, the clumps stand outmore clearly; there are significant differences in the mean velocitiesof the clumps which exceed their internal velocity dispersions. TheCancer Cluster is not a proper 'cluster' but is a collection of discretegroups, each with a velocity dispersion of approximately 300 km/s,separating from one another with the cosmological flow. Themass-to-light ratio for galaxies in the main concentration isapproximately 320 solar masses/solar luminosities (H0 = 100km/s Mpc).
|Double galaxy investigations. I - Observations|
Redshift information from 240 A/mm spectrograms is presented for 370double arcsec galaxy systems from the Karachentsev (1972) catalog,including all pairs in that catalog with separation less than 80 arcsec.An extensive error discussion utilizing internal and external (21 cm)comparisons provides calibration of systematic error and determines theuncertainty for a typical high weight optical redshift to be plus orminus 65 km/sec. Internal differential redshifts within single spectrausing common lines achieve accuracies of 18-30 km/sec, depending uponseparation, and are available for about 200 pairs. Extensive informationon emission and other properties is also provided.
|Spiral galaxies in clusters. II - Neutral hydrogen observations in Cancer, Hercules /A 2151/, and Pegasus I|
H I observations with the 305-m Arecibo telescope are reported of 67spiral galaxies in Abell 2151 (Hercules), Peg I, and the Cancerclusters. Systemic velocities, linewidths, and hydrogen masses arecomputed for the 37 galaxies detected, and upper limits on the H Icontent are derived for nondetections. The H I properties of galaxies inPeg I and Cancer are found to closely resemble those of standard, nearby'field' samples. In particular, the distance-independent qualityMH/L sub pg is in essence identical in these fields andcluster samples. Sensitivity to H I for the more distant Herculescluster is much lower, but the present results reveal only one galaxywith a value of MH/L sub pg higher than expected from thestandard sample, while several are lower than expected. It is not clearwhether this is a result of the higher luminosities of these spirals orof other conditions in the cluster.
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