Upload your image
DSS Images Other Images
Submit a new article
|Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations of Magellanic Star Clusters|
We present surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) in the near-IR for 191Magellanic star clusters available in the Second Incremental and All SkyData releases of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and compare themwith SBFs of Fornax Cluster galaxies and with predictions from stellarpopulation models as well. We also construct color-magnitude diagrams(CMDs) for these clusters using the 2MASS Point Source Catalog (PSC).Our goals are twofold. The first is to provide an empirical calibrationof near-IR SBFs, given that existing stellar population synthesis modelsare particularly discrepant in the near-IR. Second, whereas mostprevious SBF studies have focused on old, metal-rich populations, thisis the first application to a system with such a wide range of ages(~106 to more than 1010 yr, i.e., 4 orders ofmagnitude), at the same time that the clusters have a very narrow rangeof metallicities (Z~0.0006-0.01, i.e., 1 order of magnitude only). Sincestellar population synthesis models predict a more complex sensitivityof SBFs to metallicity and age in the near-IR than in the optical, thisanalysis offers a unique way of disentangling the effects of age andmetallicity. We find a satisfactory agreement between models and data.We also confirm that near-IR fluctuations and fluctuation colors aremostly driven by age in the Magellanic cluster populations and that inthis respect they constitute a sequence in which the Fornax Clustergalaxies fit adequately. Fluctuations are powered by red supergiantswith high-mass precursors in young populations and by intermediate-massstars populating the asymptotic giant branch in intermediate-agepopulations. For old populations, the trend with age of both fluctuationmagnitudes and colors can be explained straightforwardly by evolution inthe structure and morphology of the red giant branch. Moreover,fluctuation colors display a tendency to redden with age that can befitted by a straight line. For the star clusters only,(H-Ks)=(0.21+/-0.03)log(age)-(1.29+/-0.22) once galaxies areincluded, (H-Ks)=(0.20+/-0.02)log(age)-(1.25+/-0.16).Finally, we use for the first time a Poissonian approach to establishthe error bars of fluctuation measurements, instead of the customaryMonte Carlo simulations.This research has made use of the NASA/ IPAC Infrared Science Archive,which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Instituteof Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration.
|Early-type variables in the Magellanic Clouds. I. beta Cephei stars in the LMC bar|
A thorough analysis of the OGLE-II time-series photometry of the LargeMagellanic Cloud bar supplemented by similar data from the MACHOdatabase led us to the discovery of three beta Cephei-type stars. Theseare the first known extragalactic beta Cephei-type stars. Two of thethree stars are multiperiodic. Two stars have inferred masses of about10 M_sun while the third is about 2 mag brighter and at least twice asmassive. All three variables are located in or very close to the massiveand young LMC associations (LH 41, 59 and 81). It is therefore veryprobable that the variables have higher than average metallicities. Thiswould reconcile our finding with theoretical predictions of the shapeand location of the beta Cephei instability strip in the H-R diagram.The low number of beta Cephei stars found in the LMC is anotherobservational confirmation of strong dependence of the mechanism drivingpulsations in these variables on metallicity. Follow-up spectroscopicdetermination of the metallicities in the discovered variables willprovide a good test for the theory of pulsational stability in massivemain-sequence stars.
|Interpretation of the UV spectrum of some stars with little reddening|
The UV spectrum of a few reddened stars will be decomposed into twoterms. One is the direct starlight, F_*,lambda^0 e^ - tau_lambda, whichis the product of the flux of the star corrected for interstellarextinction, F_*,lambda^0, and of the extinction e^ - tau_lambda. Thesecond is starlight scattered by interstellar dust into the beam of theobservation. This excess of scattered starlight affects the FUV part ofthe spectrum (lambda < 2200 A). The combination of both terms givesthe shape of the UV spectrum of a reddened star, with its characteristicdepression at 2200 A.
|The Progenitor Masses of Wolf-Rayet Stars and Luminous Blue Variables Determined from Cluster Turnoffs. I. Results from 19 OB Associations in the Magellanic Clouds|
We combine new CCD UBV photometry and spectroscopy with those from theliterature to investigate 19 Magellanic Cloud OB associations thatcontain Wolf-Rayet (W-R) and other types of evolved, massive stars. Ourspectroscopy reveals a wealth of newly identified interesting objects,including early O-type supergiants, a high-mass, double-lined binary inthe SMC, and, in the LMC, a newly confirmed luminous blue variable (LBV;R85), a newly discovered W-R star (Sk -69°194), and a newly foundluminous B[e] star (LH 85-10). We use these data to provide precisereddening determinations and construct physical H-R diagrams for theassociations. We find that about half of the associations may be highlycoeval, with the massive stars having formed over a short period(Δτ<1 Myr). The (initial) masses of the highest massunevolved stars in the coeval clusters may be used to estimate themasses of the progenitors of W-R and other evolved stars found in theseclusters. Similarly, the bolometric luminosities of the highest massunevolved stars can be used to determine the bolometric corrections(BCs) for the evolved stars, providing a valuable observational basisfor evaluating recent models of these complicated atmospheres. What wefind is the following: (1) Although their numbers is small, it appearsthat the W-R stars in the SMC come from only the highest mass (greaterthan 70 Msolar) stars. This is in accord with ourexpectations that at low metallicities only the most massive andluminous stars will have sufficient mass loss to become W-R stars. (2)In the LMC, the early-type WN (WNE) stars occur in clusters whoseturnoff masses range from 30 to 100 Msolar or more. Thissuggests that possibly all stars with mass greater than 30Msolar pass through a WNE stage at LMC metallicities. (3) Theone WC star in the SMC is found in a cluster with a turnoff mass of 70Msolar, the same as that for the SMC WN stars. In the LMC,the WC stars are found in clusters with turnoff masses of 45Msolar or higher, similar to what is found for the LMC WNstars. Thus we conclude that WC stars come from essentially the samemass range as do WN stars and indeed are often found in the sameclusters. This has important implications for interpreting therelationship between metallicity and the WC/WN ratio found in LocalGroup galaxies, which we discuss. (4) The LBVs in our sample come fromvery high mass stars (greater than 85 Msolar), similar towhat is known for the Galactic LBV η Car, suggesting that only themost massive stars go through an LBV phase. Recently, Ofpe/WN9 starshave been implicated as LBVs after one such star underwent an LBV-likeoutburst. However, our study includes two Ofpe/WN9 stars, BE 381 and Br18, which we find in clusters with much lower turnoff masses (25-35Msolar). We suggest that Ofpe/WN9 stars are unrelated to``true'' LBVs: not all ``LBV-like outbursts'' may have the same cause.Similarly, the B[e] stars have sometimes been described as LBV-like.Yet, the two stars in our sample appear to come from a large mass range(30-60 Msolar). This is consistent with other studies,suggesting that B[e] stars cover a large range in bolometricluminosities. (5) The bolometric corrections of early WN and WC starsare found to be extreme, with an average BC(WNE) of -6.0 mag and anaverage BC(WC4) of -5.5 mag. These values are considerably more negativethan those of even the hottest O-type stars. However, similar valueshave been found for WNE stars by applying Hillier's ``standard model''for W-R atmospheres. We find more modest BCs for the Ofpe/WN9 stars(BC=-2 to -4 mag), also consistent with recent analysis done with thestandard model. Extension of these studies to the Galactic clusters willprovide insight into how massive stars evolve at differentmetallicities.
|The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Catalog of Star Clusters from the Large Magellanic Cloud|
We present the catalog of star clusters found in the area of about 5.8square degree in the central regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Itcontains data for 745 clusters. 126 of them are new objects. For eachcluster equatorial coordinates, radius, approximate number of membersand cross-identification are provided. Photometric data for all clusterspresented in the catalog and Atlas consisting of finding charts andcolor-magnitude diagrams are available electronically from the OGLEInternet archive.
|Integrated UBV Photometry of 624 Star Clusters and Associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
We present a catalog of integrated UBV photometry of 504 star clustersand 120 stellar associations in the LMC, part of them still embedded inemitting gas. We study age groups in terms of equivalent SWB typesderived from the (U-B) X (B-V) diagram. The size of the spatialdistributions increases steadily with age (SWB types), whereas adifference of axial ratio exists between the groups younger than 30 Myrand those older, which implies a nearly face-on orientation for theformer and a tilt of ~45^deg^ for the latter groups. Asymmetries arepresent in the spatial distributions, which, together with thenoncoincidence of the centroids for different age groups, suggest thatthe LMC disk was severely perturbed in the past.
|A radio continuum study of the Magellanic Clouds. IV. Catalogues of radio sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.40, 2.45, 4.75, 4.85 and 8.55 GHz.|
From observations with the Parkes radio telescope, we present cataloguesof radio sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud at four frequencies:1.40, 2.45, 4.75 and 8.55GHz, and an additional catalogue from a sourceanalysis of the Parkes-MIT-NRAO survey at 4.85GHz. A total of 469sources have been detected at least one of these frequencies, 132 ofwhich are reported here for the first time as radio sources.
|Bar star clusters in the LMC - Formation history from UBV integrated photometry|
The sample of star clusters in the LMC Bar region with integrated UBVphotometry was enlarged by approximately a factor four, totaling 129objects. The (B-V) histogram gap between blue and red clustersdisappears with this deeper sample. Age groups in terms of equivalentSWB types were derived and their spatial distribution studied. Clustersyounger than t about 200 Myr are not homogeneously distributed throughthe bar. In particular a strong star forming event at t about 100 Myrwas detected in the eastern part of the Bar, consisting of a compactgrouping of seven coeval clusters around NGC 2058 and NGC 2065. Also, 11close pairs and two trios are analyzed, and the colors indicate thatonly four pairs are clearly not coeval.
|Integrated UV magnitudes of the Large Magellanic Cloud associations|
UV photographs (2600 A, 350 A passband) of the LMC have been obtained bythe S183 experiment during a Skylab mission. The background is estimatedand a method for deriving the integrated fluxes is presented. Theintegrated magnitudes of about 50 associations and isocontours of theirintensities are given, along with the B and V integrated magnitudes of13 associations.
|Age calibration and age distribution for rich star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
An empirical relation is presented for estimating the ages of rich starclusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), to within a factor ofabout 2, from their integrated UBV colors. The calibration is based onpublished ages for 58 LMC clusters derived from main-sequencephotometry, integrated spectra, or the extent of the asymptotic giantbranches. Using stellar population models, a sample of LMC clusters moremassive than about 10,000 solar masses is isolated, which is correctedfor incompleteness as a function of magnitude. An unbiased agedistribution for three clusters is then determined. The number ofclusters decreases with increasing age in a manner that is qualitativelysimilar to the age distribution for the open clusters in our Galaxy. TheLMC age distribution is, however, flatter, and the median age of theclusters is greater. If the formation rate has been approximatelyconstant over the history of the two galaxies, then the age distributionobtained here implies that clusters are disrupted more slowly in theLMC. The results contain no evidence for bursts in the formation ofclusters, although fluctuations on small time scales and slow variationsover the lifetime of the LMC cannot be ruled out.
|Age determination of extragalactic H II regions|
The H II region evolution models of Copetti et al. (1984) were comparedwith observational data of H II regions in the Magellanic Clouds, M 33,M 101 and of 'isolated extragalactic H II regions'. IMF with chi = 3 or2.5 are inconsistent with a large number of H II regions. The moreuniform age distribution of isolated extragalactic H II regions obtainedthrough an IMF with chi = 2 suggests that this value is more realisticthan chi = 1 or 1.5. The H II region age estimates indicate a burst ofstar formation about 5.5 + or - 1.0 10 to the -6th yr ago in the LMC andabout 2.3 + or - 0.9 x 10 to the 6th yr ago in the SMC. The observedforbidden O III/H-beta gradient in M 33 and M 101 must be caused bycolor temperature variation of the radiation ionizing the H II regions.
|A survey of chemical compositions of H II regions in the Magellanic Clouds|
The reported investigation had the objective to extend abundancedeterminations to a larger number of H II regions in the Small Cloud(and a few more in the Large Cloud) in connection with a study regardingthe possible occurrence of large-scale abundance gradients analogous tothose found in Sc galaxies and in the Galaxy, taking into account alsoquestions concerning the existence of a characteristic abundance patternrepresenting the entire young population of either cloud. It is foundthat the laws governing enrichment of the interstellar medium are verysimilar in the Magellanic Clouds to what they are in the outer parts ofSc galaxies, including the very massive system M101. There is no reasonto believe that any special process such as preferential escape of gashas operated to reduce the effective yield in the Magellanic Clouds.
|A catalogue of stellar associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970AJ.....75..171L
|A Catalogue of Clusters in The LMC|
|Large Magellanic Cloud.|
Submit a new link
Member of following groups:
Observation and Astrometry data
Catalogs and designations: