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Low-Luminosity Active Galaxies and Their Central Black Holes
Central black hole masses for 117 spiral galaxies representingmorphological stages S0/a through Sc and taken from the largespectroscopic survey of Ho et al. are derived using Ks-banddata from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Black hole masses are foundusing a calibrated black hole-Ks bulge luminosity relation,while bulge luminosities are measured by means of a two-dimensionalbulge-disk decomposition routine. The black hole masses are correlatedagainst a variety of parameters representing properties of the nucleusand host galaxy. Nuclear properties such as line width (FWHM [N II]), aswell as emission-line ratios (e.g., [O III]/Hβ, [O I]/Hα, [NII]/Hα, and [S II]/Hα), show a very high degree ofcorrelation with black hole mass. The excellent correlation with linewidth supports the view that the emission-line gas is in virialequilibrium with either the black hole or bulge potential. The very goodemission-line ratio correlations may indicate a change in ionizingcontinuum shape with black hole mass in the sense that more massiveblack holes generate harder spectra. Apart from theinclination-corrected rotational velocity, no excellent correlations arefound between black hole mass and host galaxy properties. Significantdifferences are found between the distributions of black hole masses inearly-, mid-, and late-type spiral galaxies (subsamples A, B, and C) inthe sense that early-type galaxies have preferentially larger centralblack holes, consistent with observations that Seyfert galaxies arefound preferentially in early-type systems. The line width distributionsshow a marked difference among subsamples A, B, and C in the sense thatearlier type galaxies have larger line widths. There are also cleardifferences in line ratios between subsamples A+B and C that likely arerelated to the level of ionization in the gas. Finally, aKs-band Simien & de Vaucouleurs diagram shows excellentagreement with the original B-band relation, although there is a largedispersion at a given morphological stage.

The structure of galactic disks. Studying late-type spiral galaxies using SDSS
Using imaging data from the SDSS survey, we present the g' and r' radialstellar light distribution of a complete sample of ~90 face-on tointermediate inclined, nearby, late-type (Sb-Sdm) spiral galaxies. Thesurface brightness profiles are reliable (1 σ uncertainty lessthan 0.2 mag) down to μ˜27 mag/''. Only ~10% of all galaxies havea normal/standard purely exponential disk down to our noise limit. Thesurface brightness distribution of the rest of the galaxies is betterdescribed as a broken exponential. About 60% of the galaxies have abreak in the exponential profile between ˜ 1.5-4.5 times thescalelength followed by a downbending, steeper outer region. Another~30% shows also a clear break between ˜ 4.0-6.0 times thescalelength but followed by an upbending, shallower outer region. A fewgalaxies have even a more complex surface brightness distribution. Theshape of the profiles correlates with Hubble type. Downbending breaksare more frequent in later Hubble types while the fraction of upbendingbreaks rises towards earlier types. No clear relation is found betweenthe environment, as characterised by the number of neighbours, and theshape of the profiles of the galaxies.

A radio census of nuclear activity in nearby galaxies
In order to determine the incidence of black hole accretion-drivennuclear activity in nearby galaxies, as manifested by their radioemission, we have carried out a high-resolution Multi-ElementRadio-Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) survey of LINERs andcomposite LINER/Hii galaxies from a complete magnitude-limited sample ofbright nearby galaxies (Palomar sample) with unknown arcsecond-scaleradio properties. There are fifteen radio detections, of which three arenew subarcsecond-scale radio core detections, all being candidate AGN.The detected galaxies supplement the already known low-luminosity AGN -low-luminosity Seyferts, LINERs and composite LINER/Hii galaxies - inthe Palomar sample. Combining all radio-detected Seyferts, LINERs andcomposite LINER/Hii galaxies (LTS sources), we obtain an overall radiodetection rate of 54% (22% of all bright nearby galaxies) and weestimate that at least ~50% (~20% of all bright nearby galaxies) aretrue AGN. The radio powers of the LTS galaxies allow the construction ofa local radio luminosity function. By comparing the luminosity functionwith those of selected moderate-redshift AGN, selected from the 2dF/NVSSsurvey, we find that LTS sources naturally extend the RLF of powerfulAGN down to powers of about 10 times that of Sgr A*.

Hα Imaging of Early-Type Sa-Sab Spiral Galaxies. II. Global Properties
New results, based on one of the most comprehensive Hα imagingsurveys of nearby Sa-Sab spirals completed to date, reveals early-typespirals to be a diverse group of galaxies that span a wide range inmassive star formation rates. While the majority of Sa-Sab galaxies inour sample are forming stars at a modest rate, a significant fraction(~29%) exhibit star formation rates greater than 1 Msolaryr-1, rivaling the most prolifically star-forming late-typespirals. A similar diversity is apparent in the star formation historyof Sa-Sab spirals as measured by their Hα equivalent widths.Consistent with our preliminary results presented in the first paper inthis series, we find giant H II regions [L(Hα)>=1039ergs s-1] in the disks of ~37% of early-type spirals. Wesuspect that recent minor mergers or past interactions are responsiblefor the elevated levels of Hα emission and, perhaps, for thepresence of giant H II regions in these galaxies. Our results, however,are not in total agreement with the Hα study of Kennicutt &Kent, who did not find any early-type spirals with Hα equivalentwidths >14 Å. A close examination of the morphologicalclassification of galaxies, however, suggests that systematicdifferences between the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog and the SecondReference Catalogue may be responsible for the contrasting results.Based on observations obtained with the 3.5 m telescope at Apache PointObservatory (APO) and the 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak NationalObservatory (KPNO). The APO 3.5 m telescope is owned and operated by theAstrophysical Research Consortium.

The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. III. HI observations of early-type disk galaxies
We present Hi observations of 68 early-type disk galaxies from the WHISPsurvey. They have morphological types between S0 and Sab and absoluteB-band magnitudes between -14 and -22. These galaxies form the massive,high surface-brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population, few ofwhich have been imaged in Hi before. The Hi properties of the galaxiesin our sample span a large range; the average values of MHI/LB and DH I/D25 are comparableto the ones found in later-type spirals, but the dispersions around themean are larger. No significant differences are found between the S0/S0aand the Sa/Sab galaxies. Our early-type disk galaxies follow the same Himass-diameter relation as later-type spiral galaxies, but theireffective Hi surface densities are slightly lower than those found inlater-type systems. In some galaxies, distinct rings of Hi emissioncoincide with regions of enhanced star formation, even though theaverage gas densities are far below the threshold of star formationderived by Kennicutt (1989, ApJ, 344, 685). Apparently, additionalmechanisms, as yet unknown, regulate star formation at low surfacedensities. Many of the galaxies in our sample have lopsided gasmorphologies; in most cases this can be linked to recent or ongoinginteractions or merger events. Asymmetries are rare in quiescentgalaxies. Kinematic lopsidedness is rare, both in interacting andisolated systems. In the appendix, we present an atlas of the Hiobservations: for all galaxies we show Hi surface density maps, globalprofiles, velocity fields and radial surface density profiles.

Bar-induced perturbation strengths of the galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey - I
Bar-induced perturbation strengths are calculated for a well-definedmagnitude-limited sample of 180 spiral galaxies, based on the Ohio StateUniversity Bright Galaxy Survey. We use a gravitational torque method,the ratio of the maximal tangential force to the mean axisymmetricradial force, as a quantitative measure of the bar strength. Thegravitational potential is inferred from an H-band light distribution byassuming that the M/L ratio is constant throughout the disc. Galaxiesare deprojected using orientation parameters based on B-band images. Inorder to eliminate artificial stretching of the bulge, two-dimensionalbar-bulge-disc decomposition has been used to derive a reliable bulgemodel. This bulge model is subtracted from an image, the disc isdeprojected assuming it is thin, and then the bulge is added back byassuming that its mass distribution is spherically symmetric. We findthat removing the artificial bulge stretch is important especially forgalaxies having bars inside large bulges. We also find that the massesof the bulges can be significantly overestimated if bars are not takeninto account in the decomposition.Bars are identified using Fourier methods by requiring that the phasesof the main modes (m= 2, m= 4) are maintained nearly constant in the barregion. With such methods, bars are found in 65 per cent of the galaxiesin our sample, most of them being classified as SB-type systems in thenear-infrared by Eskridge and co-workers. We also suggest that as muchas ~70 per cent of the galaxies classified as SAB-types in thenear-infrared might actually be non-barred systems, many of them havingcentral ovals. It is also possible that a small fraction of the SAB-typegalaxies have weak non-classical bars with spiral-like morphologies.

A Green Bank Telescope Search for Water Masers in Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei
Using the Green Bank Telescope, we have conducted a survey for 1.3 cmwater maser emission toward the nuclei of nearby active galaxies, themost sensitive large survey for H2O masers to date. Among 145galaxies observed, maser emission was newly detected in 11 sources andconfirmed in one other. Our survey targeted nearby (v<12,000 kms-1), mainly type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) north ofδ=-20deg and includes a few additional sources as well.We find that more than one-third of Seyfert 2 galaxies have strong maseremission, although the detection rate declines beyond v~5000 kms-1 because of sensitivity limits. Two of the masersdiscovered during this survey are found in unexpected hosts: NGC 4151(Seyfert 1.5) and NGC 2782 (starburst). We discuss the possiblerelations between the large X-ray column to NGC 4151 and a possiblehidden AGN in NGC 2782 to the detected masers. Four of the masersdiscovered here, NGC 591, NGC 4388, NGC 5728, and NGC 6323, havehigh-velocity lines symmetrically spaced about the systemic velocity, alikely signature of molecular gas in a nuclear accretion disk. The masersource in NGC 6323, in particular, reveals the classic spectrum of a``disk maser'' represented by three distinct groups of Dopplercomponents. Future single-dish and VLBI observations of these fourgalaxies could provide a measurement of the distance to each galaxy andof the Hubble constant, independent of standard candle calibrations.

Circumnuclear Structure and Black Hole Fueling: Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging of 250 Active and Normal Galaxies
Why are the nuclei of some galaxies more active than others? If mostgalaxies harbor a central massive black hole, the main difference isprobably in how well it is fueled by its surroundings. We investigatethe hypothesis that such a difference can be seen in the detailedcircumnuclear morphologies of galaxies using several quantitativelydefined features, including bars, isophotal twists, boxy and diskyisophotes, and strong nonaxisymmetric features in unsharp-masked images.These diagnostics are applied to 250 high-resolution images of galaxycenters obtained in the near-infrared with NICMOS on the Hubble SpaceTelescope. To guard against the influence of possible biases andselection effects, we have carefully matched samples of Seyfert 1,Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst, and normal galaxies in their basicproperties, taking particular care to ensure that each was observed witha similar average scale (10-15 pc pixel-1). Severalmorphological differences among our five different spectroscopicclassifications emerge from the analysis. The H II/starburst galaxiesshow the strongest deviations from smooth elliptical isophotes, whilethe normal galaxies and LINERs have the least disturbed morphology. TheSeyfert 2s have significantly more twisted isophotes than any othercategory, and the early-type Seyfert 2s are significantly more disturbedthan the early-type Seyfert 1s. The morphological differences betweenSeyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s suggest that more is at work than simply theviewing angle of the central engine. They may correspond to differentevolutionary stages.

Nuclear Stellar Populations in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies
To understand the nuclear stellar populations and star formationhistories of the nuclei of spiral galaxies, we have obtained K-bandnuclear spectra for 41 galaxies and H-band spectra for 20 galaxies inthe Infrared Space Observatory's Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies. In thevast majority of the subsample (80%), the near-infrared spectra suggestthat evolved red stars completely dominate the nuclear stellarpopulations and that hot young stars are virtually nonexistent. Thesignatures of recent star formation activity are only found in 20% ofthe subsample, even though older red stars still dominate the stellarpopulations in these galaxies. Given the dominance of evolved stars inmost galaxy nuclei and the nature of the emission lines in the galaxieswhere they were detected, we suggest that nuclear star formationproceeds in the form of instantaneous bursts. The stars produced bythese bursts comprise only ~2% of the total nuclear stellar mass inthese galaxies, but we demonstrate how the nuclear stellar populationsof normal spiral galaxies can be built up through a series of thesebursts. The bursts were detected only in Sbc galaxies and later, andboth bars and interactions appeared to be sufficient, but not necessary,triggers for the nuclear star formation activity. The vast majority ofgalaxies with nuclear star formation were classified as H II galaxies.With one exception, LINERs and transition objects were dominated byolder red stars, which suggested that star formation was not responsiblefor generating these galaxies' optical line emission.

Inner-truncated Disks in Galaxies
We present an analysis of the disk brightness profiles of 218 spiral andlenticular galaxies. At least 28% of disk galaxies exhibit innertruncations in these profiles. There are no significant trends oftruncation incidence with Hubble type, but the incidence among barredsystems is 49%, more than 4 times that for nonbarred galaxies. However,not all barred systems have inner truncations, and not allinner-truncated systems are currently barred. Truncations represent areal dearth of disk stars in the inner regions and are not an artifactof our selection or fitting procedures nor the result of obscuration bydust. Disk surface brightness profiles in the outer regions are wellrepresented by simple exponentials for both truncated and nontruncateddisks. However, truncated and nontruncated systems have systematicallydifferent slopes and central surface brightness parameters for theirdisk brightness distributions. Truncation radii do not appear tocorrelate well with the sizes or brightnesses of the bulges. Thissuggests that the low angular momentum material apparently missing fromthe inner disk was not simply consumed in forming the bulge population.Disk parameters and the statistics of bar orientations in our sampleindicate that the missing stars of the inner disk have not simply beenredistributed azimuthally into bar structures. The sharpness of thebrightness truncations and their locations with respect to othergalactic structures suggest that resonances associated with diskkinematics, or tidal interactions with the mass of bulge stars, might beresponsible for this phenomenon.

A Search for ``Dwarf'' Seyfert Nuclei. VI. Properties of Emission-Line Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies
We use the database from Paper III to quantify the global and nuclearproperties of emission-line nuclei in the Palomar spectroscopic surveyof nearby galaxies. We show that the host galaxies of Seyferts, LINERs,and transition objects share remarkably similar large-scale propertiesand local environments. The distinguishing traits emerge on nuclearscales. Compared with LINERs, Seyfert nuclei are an order of magnitudemore luminous and exhibit higher electron densities and internalextinction. We suggest that Seyfert galaxies possess characteristicallymore gas-rich circumnuclear regions and hence a more abundant fuelreservoir and plausibly higher accretion rates. The differences betweenthe ionization states of the narrow emission-line regions of Seyfertsand LINERs can be partly explained by the differences in their nebularproperties. Transition-type objects are consistent with being composite(LINER/H II) systems. With very few exceptions, the stellar populationwithin the central few hundred parsecs of the host galaxies is uniformlyold, a finding that presents a serious challenge to starburst orpost-starburst models for these objects. Seyferts and LINERs havevirtually indistinguishable velocity fields as inferred from their linewidths and line asymmetries. Transition nuclei tend to have narrowerlines and more ambiguous evidence for line asymmetries. All threeclasses of objects obey a strong correlation between line width and lineluminosity. We argue that the angular momentum content of circumnucleargas may be an important factor in determining whether a nucleus becomesactive. Finally, we discuss some possible complications for theunification model of Seyfert galaxies posed by our observations.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Bar strengths in spiral galaxies estimated from 2MASS images
Non-axisymmetric forces are presented for a sample of 107 spiralgalaxies, of which 31 are barred (SB) and 53 show nuclear activity. As adata base we use JHK images from the 2 Micron All-sky Survey, and thenon-axisymmetries are characterized by the ratio of the tangential forceto the mean axisymmetric radial force field, following Buta & Block.Bar strengths have an important role in many extragalactic problems andtherefore it is important to verify that the different numerical methodsapplied for calculating the forces give mutually consistent results. Weapply both direct Cartesian integration and a polar grid integrationutilizing a limited number of azimuthal Fourier components of density.We find that the bar strength is independent of the method used toevaluate the gravitational potential. However, because of thedistance-dependent smoothing by Fourier decomposition, the polar methodis more suitable for weak and noisy images. The largest source ofuncertainty in the derived bar strength appears to be the uncertainty inthe vertical scaleheight, which is difficult to measure directly formost galaxies. On the other hand, the derived bar strength is ratherinsensitive to the possible gradient in the vertical scaleheight of thedisc or to the exact model of the vertical density distribution,provided that the same effective vertical dispersion is assumed in allmodels. In comparison with the pioneering study by Buta & Block, thebar strength estimate is improved here by taking into account thedependence of the vertical scaleheight on the Hubble type: we find thatfor thin discs bar strengths are stronger than for thick discs by anamount that may correspond to as much as one bar strength class. Weconfirm the previous result by Buta and co-workers showing that thedispersion in bar strength is large among all the de Vaucouleurs opticalbar classes. In the near-infrared 40 per cent of the galaxies in oursample have bars (showing constant phases in the m= 2 Fourier amplitudesin the bar region), while in the optical band one-third of these barsare obscured by dust. Significant non-axisymmetric forces can also beinduced by the spiral arms, generally in the outer parts of the galacticdiscs, which may have important implications on galaxy evolution.Possible biases of the selected sample are also studied: we find thatthe number of bars identified drops rapidly when the inclination of thegalactic disc is larger than 50°. A similar bias is found in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, which might be of interestwhen comparing bar frequencies at high and low redshifts.

The Radio Properties of Composite LINER/H II Galaxies
Arcsecond-resolution VLA observations-newly obtained as well aspublished-of 40 nearby galaxies are discussed, completing a study of theradio properties of a magnitude-limited sample of nearby galaxies of thecomposite LINER/H II type. Our results reveal an overall detection rateof at least 25% active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates among thesecomposite sources. The general properties of these AGN candidates, ascompared to non-AGN composite sources and H II galaxies, are discussed.

Nuclear Stellar Disks in Spiral Galaxies
We report evidence for nuclear stellar disks in three early-typespirals, namely, NGC 1425, NGC 3898, and NGC 4698, revealed by WideField Planetary Camera 2 F606W images out of a sample of 38 spiralgalaxies, selected from the Hubble Space Telescope data archive.Adopting the photometric method introduced by Scorza & Bender, wederived their central surface brightness and scale length by assumingthem to be infinitesimally thin exponential disks. No nuclear disk wasfound in barred galaxies or galaxies of Hubble type later than Sb. Theexternal origin of the disk in NGC 4698 is strongly suggested by itsorthogonal geometrical decoupling with respect to the host galaxy. Basedon observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained fromthe data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of the Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

An Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies
In this first paper in a series we present an atlas of infrared imagesand photometry from 1.2 to 180 μm for a sample of bright spiralgalaxies. The atlas galaxies are an optically selected,magnitude-limited sample of 77 spiral and S0 galaxies chosen from theRevised Shapley-Ames Catalog (RSA). The sample is a representativesample of spiral galaxies and includes Seyfert galaxies, LINERs,interacting galaxies, and peculiar galaxies. Using the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO), we have obtained 12 μm images and photometry at60, 100, and 180 μm for the galaxies. In addition to its imagingcapabilities, ISO provides substantially better angular resolution thanis available in the IRAS survey, and this permits discrimination betweeninfrared activity in the central regions and global infrared emission inthe disks of these galaxies. These ISO data have been supplemented withJHK imaging using ground-based telescopes. The atlas includes 2 and 12μm images. Following an analysis of the properties of the galaxies,we have compared the mid-infrared and far-infrared ISO photometry withIRAS photometry. The systematic differences we find between the IRASFaint Source Catalog and ISO measurements are directly related to thespatial extent of the ISO fluxes, and we discuss the reliability of IRASFaint Source Catalog total flux densities and flux ratios for nearbygalaxies. In our analysis of the 12 μm morphological features we findthat most but not all galaxies have bright nuclear emission. We find 12μm structures such as rings, spiral arm fragments, knotted spiralarms, and bright sources in the disks that are sometimes brighter thanthe nuclei at mid-infrared wavelengths. These features, which arepresumably associated with extranuclear star formation, are common inthe disks of Sb and later galaxies but are relatively unimportant inS0-Sab galaxies. Based on observations with the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO), an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA MemberStates (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, Netherlands, andUnited Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Spiral Galaxies with HST/NICMOS. II. Isophotal Fits and Nuclear Cusp Slopes
We present surface brightness profiles for 56 of the 78 spiral galaxiesobserved in the HST/NICMOS2 F160W snapshot survey introduced in Paper Iof this series, as well as surface brightness profiles for 23 objectsout of the 41 that were also observed in the F110W filter. We fit thesesurface brightness profiles with the Nuker law of Lauer et al. and usethe smooth analytical descriptions of the data to compute the averagenuclear stellar cusp slopes <γ> in the 0.1"-0.5" radialrange. Our main result is the startling similarity between the nuclearstellar cusp slopes <γ> in the near-infrared compared withthose derived in the visual passband. This similarity has severalimplications: (1) Despite the significant local color variations thatare found in the nuclear regions of spirals and that are documented inPaper I, there are typically little or no optical-NIR global colorgradients, and thus no global stellar population variations, inside~50-100 pc from the nucleus in nearby spirals. (2) The large observedrange of the strength of the nuclear stellar cusps seen in the HSToptical study of spiral galaxies reflects a physical difference betweengalaxies and is not an artifact caused by nuclear dust and/or recentstar formation. (3) The dichotomy between R1/4 bulges, withsteep nuclear stellar cusps <γ>~1, and exponential bulges,with shallow nuclear stellar cusps <γ><0.3, is also notan artifact of the effects of dust or recent star formation. (4) Thepresence of a surrounding massive disk appears to have no effect on therise of the stellar density distribution within the innermost hundredparsecs of the R1/4 spheroids. These results imply abreakdown within the family of exponential bulges of the nuclear versusglobal relationships that have been found for the R1/4spheroids. Such a breakdown is likely to have significant implicationsconcerning the formation of exponential bulges and their connection withthe R1/4 spheroids. Based on observations with the NASA/ESAHubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Spiral Galaxies with HST/NICMOS. I. Nuclear Morphologies, Color Maps, and Distinct Nuclei
This is the first of two papers where we present the analysis of anHST/NICMOS2 near-infrared (NIR) snapshot survey in the F160W (H) filterfor a sample of 78 spiral galaxies selected from the UGC and ESOLVcatalogs. For 69 of these objects we provide nuclear color informationderived by combining the H data either with additional NICMOS F110W (J)images or with V WFPC2/HST data. Here we present the NIR images and theoptical-NIR color maps. We focus our attention on the properties of thephotometrically distinct ``nuclei'' which are found embedded in most ofthe galaxies and provide measurements of their half-light radii andmagnitudes in the H (and when available in the J) band. We find that (1)in the NIR the nuclei embedded in the bright early- to intermediate-typegalaxies span a much larger range in brightness than the nuclei whichare typically found embedded in bulgeless late-type disks: the nucleiembedded in the early- to intermediate-type galaxies reach, on thebright end, values up to HAB~-17.7 mag; (2) nuclei are foundin both nonbarred and barred hosts, in large-scale (>~1 kpc) as wellas in nuclear (up to a few 100 pc) bars; (3) there is a significantincrease in half-light radius with increasing luminosity of the nucleusin the early/intermediate types (a decade in radius for ~8 magbrightening), a correlation which was found in the V band and which isalso seen in the NIR data; (4) the nuclei of early/intermediate-typespirals cover a large range of optical-NIR colors, from V-H~-0.5 to 3.Some nuclei are bluer and others redder than the surroundinggalaxy,indicating the presence of activity or reddening by dust in many ofthese systems; (5) someearly/intermediate nuclei are elongated and/orslightly offset from the isophotal center of the host galaxy. Onaverage, however, these nuclei appear as centered, star-cluster-likestructures similar to those whichare found in the late-type disks. Basedon observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained atthe Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Position-velocity diagrams of ionized gas in the inner regions of disk galaxies
We use long-slit spectroscopy along the major axis of a sample of 23nearby disk galaxies to study the kinematic properties of theionized-gas component in their inner regions. For each galaxy, we derivethe position-velocity diagram of the ionized gas from its emissionlines. We discuss the variety of shapes observed in suchposition-velocity diagrams by comparing the gas velocity gradient,velocity dispersion and integrated flux measured in the inner (r =~+/-1'') and outer regions (r =~ +/-4''). This kind of analysis allowsthe identification of galaxies which are good candidates to host acircumnuclear Keplerian gaseous disk rotating around a central massconcentration, and to follow up with Hubble Space Telescopeobservations. Based on observations carried out at European SouthernObservatory (ESO N.58, A-0564), at the Multiple Mirror Telescope, whichis a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University ofArizona, and at the Isaac Newton Telescope operated by the Isaac Newtongroup at the La Palma island at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque delos Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

The Ursa Major cluster of galaxies - III. Optical observations of dwarf galaxies and the luminosity function down to MR=-11
Results are presented of a deep optical survey of the Ursa Majorcluster, a spiral-rich cluster of galaxies at a distance of 18.6Mpcwhich contains about 30 per cent of the light but only 5 per cent of themass of the nearby Virgo cluster. Fields around known cluster membersand a pattern of blind fields along the major and minor axes of thecluster were studied with mosaic CCD cameras on the Canada-France-HawaiiTelescope. The dynamical crossing time for the Ursa Major cluster isonly slightly less than a Hubble time. Most galaxies in the localUniverse exist in similar moderate-density environments. The Ursa Majorcluster is therefore a good place to study the statistical properties ofdwarf galaxies, since this structure is at an evolutionary stagerepresentative of typical environments, yet has enough galaxies thatreasonable counting statistics can be accumulated. The mainobservational results of our survey are as follows. (i) The galaxyluminosity function is flat, with a logarithmic slope α=-1.1 for-17

Modelling gaseous and stellar kinematics in the disc galaxies NGC 772, 3898 and 7782
We present V-band surface photometry and major-axis kinematics of starsand ionized gas of three early-type spiral galaxies, namely NGC 772,3898 and 7782. For each galaxy we present a self-consistent Jeans modelfor the stellar kinematics, adopting the light distribution of bulge anddisc derived by means of a two-dimensional parametric photometricdecomposition. This allows us to investigate the presence ofnon-circular gas motions, and derive the mass distribution of luminousand dark matter in these objects. NGC 772 and 7782 have apparentlynormal kinematics with the ionized gas tracing the gravitationalequilibrium circular speed. This is not true in the innermost region(|r|<~8arcsec) of NGC 3898, where the ionized gas is rotating moreslowly than the circular velocity predicted by dynamical modelling. Thisphenomenon is common in the bulge-dominated galaxies for which dynamicalmodelling enables us to make the direct comparison between the gasvelocity and the circular speed, and it poses questions about thereliability of galaxy mass distributions derived by the directdecomposition of the observed ionized-gas rotation curve into thecontributions of luminous and dark matter.

Modeling gas and stellar kinematics in disc galaxies
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Hubble Space Telescope Optical-Near-Infrared Colors of Nearby R1/4 and Exponential Bulges
We have analyzed V, H, and J Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images for asample of early- to late-type spiral galaxies and have reportedelsewhere the statistical frequency of R1/4-law andexponential bulges in our sample as a function of Hubble type and thefrequency of occurrence and structural properties of the resolvedcentral nuclei hosted by intermediate- to late-type bulges and disks(see references in the text). Here we use these data to show thefollowing:1.The V-H color distribution of the R1/4 bulge peaksaround ~1.3, with a sigma Δ(V-H)~0.1 mag. Assuming asolar metallicity, these values correspond to stellar ages of ~6+/-3Gyr. In contrast, the V-H color distribution of the exponential bulgespeaks at and has a sigma Δ(V-H)~0.4 mag. Thislikely implies significantly smaller ages and/or lower metallicities for(a significant fraction of the stars in) the exponential bulges comparedto the R1/4-law spheroids. 2.Most of the central nuclei hosted by the exponential bulges haveV-H and J-H colors that are compatible with relatively unobscuredstellar populations. Assuming no or little dust effects, ages >~1 Gyrare suggested for these nuclei, which in turn imply masses of about afew 106 to a few 107 Msolar, i.e.,sufficient to dissolve progenitor bars with masses consistent with thoseinferred for the exponential bulges by their luminosities.3. While different bulge-nucleus pairscover a large range of V-H colors, each bulge-nucleus pair has quitesimilar V-H colors and thus possibly similar stellar populations.The HST photometric analysis suggests thatexponential-type bulge formation is taking place in the local universeand that this process is consistent with being the outcome of secularevolution processes within the disks. The structures that are currentlyformed inside the disks are quite dissimilar from the oldelliptical-like spheroids that are hosted by the early-type disks. Basedon observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained atthe Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Kinematics of Gas and Stars in 20 Disc Galaxies
In this paper we present the kinematics of the gas and/or the stars of asample of 20 disc galaxies. We investigate whether there is any relationbetween the kinematics of the gas and stars and the classicalmorphological type of the galaxies in the sample. We deduce that, inmost of the late-type spirals we have studied, the stars and the ionizedgas are moving with virtually circular velocity, except when thespectroscopic slit crosses a bar region. On the other hand, we found inthe central parts of early-type disc galaxies a wider variety ofdifferent behaviour of stars and gas. We find many possible factors thatcomplicate the classification of the kinematical properties of thegalaxies by their morphological type: the presence of counter-rotations(star vs. stars or star vs. gas), misalignment between the differentkinematic components present in the galaxy, the presence of a barstructure and its orientation with respect to the line of nodes of thegalaxy, and interactions and mergers or external accretion processes aresome of the problems we find in the study of the kinematics of a galaxy.

Kinematics of Gas and Stars Along the Hubble Sequence
We present a comparison between the ionized gas and stellar kinematicsfor a sample of five early-to-intermediate disc galaxies. We measuredthe major axis V and σ radial profiles for both gas and stars, andthe h_3 and h_4 radial profiles of the stars. We also derived from theR-band surface photometry of each galaxy the light contribution of theirbulges and discs. In order to investigate the differences between thevelocity fields of the sample galaxies we adopted the self-consistentdynamical model by Pignatelli and Galletta (1999), which takes intoaccount the asymmetric drift effects, the projection effects along theline of sight and the non-Gaussian shape of the line profiles due to thepresence of different components with distinct dynamical behaviour. Wefind for the stellar component a sizeable asymmetric drift effect in theinner regions of all the sample galaxies, as results from comparingtheir stellar rotation curves with the circular velocity predicted bythe models. The galaxy sample is not wide enough to draw generalconclusions. However, we have found a possible correlation between thepresence of slowly rising gas rotation curves and the ratio of thebulge/disc half-luminosity radii, while there is no obvious correlationwith the key parameter represented by the morphological classification,namely the bulge/disc luminosity ratio. Systems with a diffuse,dynamically hot component (bulge or lens) with a scale length comparableto that of the disc are characterized by slowly rising gas rotationcurves. On the other hand, in systems with a small bulge the gas followsalmost circular motions, regardless of the luminosity of the bulgeitself. We noticed a similar behaviour also in the gas and stellarkinematics of the two early-type spiral galaxies modelled by Corsini etal. (1998).

Kinematic properties of gas and stars in 20 disc galaxies
Ionized gas and stellar kinematical parameters have been measured alongthe major axis of 20 nearby disc galaxies. We discuss the properties ofeach sample galaxy, distinguishing between those characterized byregular or peculiar kinematics. In early-type disc galaxies, ionized gastends to rotate faster than stars and to have a lower velocitydispersion (Vg > Vstar and sigmag< sigmastar), whereas in late-type spirals, gas andstars show almost the same rotation velocities and velocity dispersions(Vg =~ Vstar and sigmag =~sigmastar ). Incorporating the early-type disc galaxiesstudied by Bertola et al. (1995), Fisher (1997) and Corsini et al.(1999), we have compiled a sample of some 40 galaxies for which themajor-axis radial profiles of both the stellar and gaseous componentshave been measured. The value of sigmastar measured atRe/4 turns out to be strongly correlated with the galaxymorphological type, while sigmag is not and sometimes takesvalues above the range expected from thermal motions or small-scaleturbulence. Based on observations carried out at the European SouthernObservatory, at the Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, at theObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, at the Observatorio del Teide,and at the Mount Graham International Observatory. Tables 5 and 6 areonly available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/394

The visible environment of galaxies with counterrotation
In this paper we present a statistical study of the environments of 49galaxies in which there is gas- or stellar-counterrotation. The numberof possible companions in the field (to apparent magnitude 22), theirsize and concentration were considered. All the statistical parameterswere analysed by means of Kolgomorov-Smirnov tests, using a controlsample of 43 galaxies without counterrotation. From our data, nosignificant differences between the counter-rotating and control samplesappear. This is different to Seyfert or radio-loud galaxies which lie inenvironments with a higher density of companions. On the contrary, if aweak tendency exists, for galaxies with gas counterrotation only, it isdiscovered in regions of space where the large scale density of galaxiesis smaller. Our results tend to disprove the hypothesis thatcounterrotation and polar rings derive from a recent interaction with asmall satellite or a galaxy of similar size. To a first approximation,they seem to follow the idea that all galaxies are born through a mergerprocess of smaller objects occurring very early in their life, or thatthey derive from a continuous, non-traumatic infall of gas that formedstars later. Whatever the special machinery is which producescounterrotation or polar rings instead of a co-planar, co-rotatingdistribution of gas and stars, it seems not to be connected to thepresent galaxy density of their environments.

Surface photometry of spiral galaxies in NIR: Structural parameters of disks and bulges
A sample of 40 bright spiral galaxies (BT < 12) with lowinclination and without bar was observed with JHK filters. For thispurpose the MAGIC NICMOS3 camera at the 2.2 m telescope of the CalarAlto observatory, Spain was used. With a newly developed 2-dimensionalalgorithm the distribution of the surface brightness was fittedsimultaneously by corresponding functions for the disk- andbulge-structure. While the disk was fitted with an exponential function,the bulge profile was fitted with a generalized de VaucouleursRbeta law, with the concentration parameter beta = 1/n as afurther fit variable. The correlation of the resulting structuralparameters of disks and bulges lead to some interesting relations: 1.The use of a variable exponent beta is necessary for a realisticdescription of the bulge structure; 2. Disks and bulges show similarcorrelations between effective radius, effective surface brightness andluminosity; 3. They populate a common strip in the fundamental plane; 4.From the correlations between beta and Hubble type some conclusionsabout the formation and evolution of spiral galaxies can be drawn.

The formation of galaxy bulges: Spectrophotometric constraints
We have measured Mg2, Fe 5270 and Fe 5335 spectrophotometricindices (LICK system) in the bulge of 89 galaxies, mostly spirals fromthe Héraudeau (\cite{her96}) sample. The indices are reduced to anull velocity dispersion and normalized to an aperture of 0.2h-1 kpc. The mean errors are 0.009 mag on Mg2, and0.3 Å on the iron indices. These measurements almost double theamount of similar data already available on spiral galaxies. Our dataconfirm the existence of the relation between Mg2, andsigma0, the central stellar velocity dispersion; we find aneven tighter relation between Mg2, andVmrot, the maximum rotational velocity of thegalaxy, deduced from HI observations. For the most massive bulges, thesecorrelations may be interpreted as a mass-metallicity relation. However,the presence of young stellar populations, traced by the detection of[OIII] lambda 5007 Å, emission, provides clear evidence that ageeffects do play a role. Since the contribution of the young populationis anti-correlated to the mass of the galaxy, it continues theMg2, vs. sigma0 , relation toward thelow-sigma0, region and globally increases its slope. We alsopresent evidence for a new positive correlation between Fe indices andsigma0, and for a significant correlation between theline-strength indices and the total or disk luminosity. We propose tomodel the whole sequence of bulges within the folowing framework: bulgesare composed of a primary population formed prior to the disk, duringthe initial collapse, and of a secondary population formed during itsevolution. The whole family of bulges can be classified into threeclasses: (A) the bulges dominated by young populations are generallysmall, have ionized gas, low velocity dispersion and low line strengths;(B) the bulges dominated by the primary population lie along themass-metallicity sequence defined for elliptical galaxies; and (C) thebulges where the secondary population is significant are lessMg-over-abundant than (B)-type bulges and deviate from theMg2, vs. sigma0, relation of elliptical galaxies.Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence.Table 3 is presented in electronic form only at the CDS. Tables 1 and 2are also available form at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/366/68

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:11h49m15.20s
Aparent dimensions:3.802′ × 2.344′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 3898

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