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Masses of the local group and of the M81 group estimated from distortions in the local velocity field
Based on high precision measurements of the distances to nearby galaxieswith the Hubble telescope, we have determined the radii of the zerovelocity spheres for the local group, R0 =0.96±0.03Mpc, and for the group of galaxies around M 81/M 82,0.89±0.05Mpc. These yield estimates of MT =(1.29±0.14)· 1012 Mȯ and(1.03±0.17)· 1012 Mȯ,respectively, for the total masses of these groups. The R0method allows us to determine the mass ratios for the two brightestmembers in both groups, as well. By varying the position of the centerof mass between the two principal members of a group to obtain minimalscatter in the galaxies on a Hubble diagram, we find mass ratios of0.8:1.0 for our galaxy and Andromeda and 0.54:1.00 for the M82 and M81galaxies, in good agreement with the observed ratios of the luminositiesof these galaxies.

Objective Classification of Spiral Galaxies Having Extended Rotation Curves Beyond the Optical Radius
We carry out an objective classification of four samples of spiralgalaxies having extended rotation curves beyond the optical radius. Amultivariate statistical analysis (viz., principal component analysis[PCA]) shows that about 96% of the total variation is due to twocomponents, one being the combination of absolute blue magnitude andmaximum rotational velocity beyond the optical region and the otherbeing the central density of the halo. On the basis of PCA a fundamentalplane has been constructed that reduces the scatter in the Tully-Fisherrelation up to a maximum of 16%. A multiple stepwise regression analysisof the variation of the overall shape of the rotation curves shows thatit is mainly determined by the central surface brightness, while theshape purely in the outer part of the galaxy (beyond the optical radius)is mainly determined by the size of the galactic disk.

Advanced Camera for Surveys Imaging of 25 Galaxies in Nearby Groups and in the Field
We present Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys images andcolor-magnitude diagrams for 25 nearby galaxies with radial velocitiesVLG<500 km s-1. Distances are determined basedon the luminosities of stars at the tip of the red giant branch thatrange from 2 to 12 Mpc. Two of the galaxies, NGC 4163 and IC 4662, arefound to be the nearest known representatives of blue compact dwarfobjects. Using high-quality data on distances and radial velocities of110 nearby field galaxies, we derive their mean Hubble ratio to be 68 kms-1 Mpc-1 with a standard deviation of 15 kms-1 Mpc-1. Peculiar velocities of most of thegalaxies, Vpec=VLG-68D, follow a Gaussiandistribution with σv=63 km s-1 but with atail toward high negative values. Our data display the known correlationbetween peculiar velocity and galaxy elevation above the LocalSupercluster plane. The small observed fraction of galaxies with highpeculiar velocities, Vpec<-500 km s-1, may beunderstood as objects associated with nearby groups (Coma I, Eridanus)outside the local volume.

Reconciling the local galaxy population with damped Lyman α cross-sections and metal abundances
A comprehensive analysis of 355 high-quality Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope (WSRT) HI 21-cm line maps of nearby galaxies shows that theproperties and incident rate of damped Lyman α absorption systems(DLAs) observed in the spectra of high-redshift QSOs are in goodagreement with DLAs originating in gas discs of galaxies like those inthe z~ 0 population. Comparison of low-z DLA statistics with the HIincidence rate and column density distribution f(NHI) for thelocal galaxy sample shows no evidence for evolution in the integral`cross-section density'=l-1 (l= mean freepath between absorbers) below z~ 1.5, implying that there is no need fora hidden population of galaxies or HI clouds to contribute significantlyto the DLA cross-section. Compared with z~ 4, our data indicateevolution of a factor of 2 in the comoving density along a line ofsight. We find that dN/dz(z= 0) = 0.045 +/- 0.006. The idea that thelocal galaxy population can explain the DLAs is further strengthened bycomparing the properties of DLAs and DLA galaxies with the expectationsbased on our analysis of local galaxies. The distribution ofluminosities of DLA host galaxies, and of impact parameters between QSOsand the centres of DLA galaxies, is in good agreement with what isexpected from local galaxies. Approximately 87 per cent of low-z DLAgalaxies are expected to be fainter than L*, and 37 per centhave impact parameters less than 1 arcsec at z= 0.5. The analysis showsthat some host galaxies with very low impact parameters and lowluminosities are expected to be missed in optical follow-up surveys. Thewell-known metallicity-luminosity relation in galaxies, in combinationwith metallicity gradients in galaxy discs, causes the expected medianmetallicity of low-z DLAs to be low (~1/7 solar), which is also in goodagreement with observations of low-z DLAs. We find thatf(NHI) can be fitted satisfactorily with a gammadistribution, a single power law is not a good fit at the highest columndensities NHI > 1021cm-2. The vastmajority (~81 per cent) of the HI gas in the local Universe resides incolumn densities above the classical DLA limit (NHI > 2× 1020cm-2), with NHI~1021cm-2 dominating the cosmic HI mass density.

The Molecular Interstellar Medium of Dwarf Galaxies on Kiloparsec Scales: A New Survey for CO in Northern, IRAS-detected Dwarf Galaxies
We present a new survey for CO in dwarf galaxies using the ARO Kitt Peak12 m telescope. This survey consists of observations of the centralregions of 121 northern dwarfs with IRAS detections and no known COemission. We detect CO in 28 of these galaxies and marginally detectanother 16, increasing by about 50% the number of such galaxies known tohave significant CO emission. The galaxies we detect are comparable instellar and dynamical mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud, althoughsomewhat brighter in CO and fainter in the far-IR. Within dwarfs, wefind that the CO luminosity LCO is most strongly correlatedwith the K-band and the far-infrared luminosities. There are also strongcorrelations with the radio continuum (RC) and B-band luminosities andlinear diameter. Conversely, we find that far-IR dust temperature is apoor predictor of CO emission within the dwarfs alone, although a goodpredictor of normalized CO content among a larger sample of galaxies. Wesuggest that LCO and LK correlate well because thestellar component of a galaxy dominates the midplane gravitational fieldand thus sets the pressure and density of the atomic gas, which controlthe formation of H2 from H I. We compare our sample with moremassive galaxies and find that dwarfs and large galaxies obey the samerelationship between CO and the 1.4 GHz RC surface brightness. Thisrelationship is well described by a Schmidt law withΣRC~Σ1.3CO. Therefore,dwarf galaxies and large spirals exhibit the same relationship betweenmolecular gas and star formation rate (SFR). We find that this result isrobust to moderate changes in the RC-to-SFR and CO-to-H2conversion factors. Our data appear to be inconsistent with large (orderof magnitude) variations in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor inthe star-forming molecular gas.

A Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies
We present an all-sky catalog of 451 nearby galaxies, each having anindividual distance estimate D<~10 Mpc or a radial velocityVLG<550 km s-1. The catalog contains data onbasic optical and H I properties of the galaxies, in particular, theirdiameters, absolute magnitudes, morphological types, circumnuclearregion types, optical and H I surface brightnesses, rotationalvelocities, and indicative mass-to-luminosity and H I mass-to-luminosityratios, as well as a so-called tidal index, which quantifies the galaxyenvironment. We expect the catalog completeness to be roughly 70%-80%within 8 Mpc. About 85% of the Local Volume population are dwarf (dIr,dIm, and dSph) galaxies with MB>-17.0, which contributeabout 4% to the local luminosity density, and roughly 10%-15% to thelocal H I mass density. The H I mass-to-luminosity and the H Imass-to-total (indicative) mass ratios increase systematically fromgiant galaxies toward dwarfs, reaching maximum values about 5 in solarunits for the most tiny objects. For the Local Volume disklike galaxies,their H I masses and angular momentum follow Zasov's linear relation,expected for rotating gaseous disks being near the threshold ofgravitational instability, favorable for active star formation. We foundthat the mean local luminosity density exceeds 1.7-2.0 times the globaldensity, in spite of the presence of the Tully void and the absence ofrich clusters in the Local Volume. The mean local H I density is 1.4times its ``global'' value derived from the H I Parkes Sky Survey.However, the mean local baryon densityΩb(<8Mpc)=2.3% consists of only a half of the globalbaryon density, Ωb=(4.7+/-0.6)% (Spergel et al.,published in 2003). The mean-square pairwise difference of radialvelocities is about 100 km s-1 for spatial separations within1 Mpc, increasing to ~300 km s-1 on a scale of ~3 Mpc. alsoWe calculated the integral area of the sky occupied by the neighboringgalaxies. Assuming the H I size of spiral and irregular galaxies to be2.5 times their standard optical diameter and ignoring any evolutioneffect, we obtain the expected number of the line-of-sight intersectionswith the H I galaxy images to be dn/dz~0.4, which does not contradictthe observed number of absorptions in QSO spectra.

The Hα galaxy survey. I. The galaxy sample, Hα narrow-band observations and star formation parameters for 334 galaxies
We discuss the selection and observations of a large sample of nearbygalaxies, which we are using to quantify the star formation activity inthe local Universe. The sample consists of 334 galaxies across allHubble types from S0/a to Im and with recession velocities of between 0and 3000 km s-1. The basic data for each galaxy are narrowband H\alpha +[NII] and R-band imaging, from which we derive starformation rates, H\alpha +[NII] equivalent widths and surfacebrightnesses, and R-band total magnitudes. A strong correlation is foundbetween total star formation rate and Hubble type, with the strongeststar formation in isolated galaxies occurring in Sc and Sbc types. Moresurprisingly, no significant trend is found between H\alpha +[NII]equivalent width and galaxy R-band luminosity. More detailed analyses ofthe data set presented here will be described in subsequent papers.Based on observations made with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.The full version of Table \ref{tab3} is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/23 Reduced image datafor this survey can be downloaded fromhttp://www.astro.livjm.ac.uk/HaGS/

Globular Clusters as Candidates for Gravitational Lenses to Explain Quasar-Galaxy Associations
We argue that globular clusters (GCs) are good candidates forgravitational lenses in explaining quasar-galaxy associations. Thecatalog of associations (Bukhmastova 2001) compiled from the LEDAcatalog of galaxies (Paturel 1997) and from the catalog of quasars(Veron-Cetty and Veron 1998) is used. Based on the new catalog, we showthat one might expect an increased number of GCs around irregulargalaxies of types 9 and 10 from the hypothesis that distant compactsources are gravitationally lensed by GCs in the halos of foregroundgalaxies. The King model is used to determine the central surfacedensities of 135 GCs in the Milky Way. The distribution of GCs incentral surface density was found to be lognormal.

The metallicity-luminosity relationship of dwarf irregular galaxies. II. A new approach
The nature of a possible correlation between metallicity and luminosityfor dwarf irregular galaxies, including those with the highestluminosities, has been explored using simple chemical evolutionarymodels. Our models depend on a set of free parameters in order toinclude infall and outflows of gas and covering a broad variety ofphysical situations. Given a fixed set of parameters, a non-linearcorrelation between the oxygen abundance and the luminosity may beestablished. This would be the case if an effective self-regulatingmechanism between the accretion of mass and the wind energized by thestar formation could lead to the same parameters for all the dwarfirregular galaxies. In the case that these parameters were distributedin a random manner from galaxy to galaxy, a significant scatter in themetallicity-luminosity diagram is expected. Comparing with observations,we show that only variations of the stellar mass-to-light ratio aresufficient to explain the observed scattering and, therefore, the actionof a mechanism of self-regulation cannot be ruled out. The possibleorigin of discrepancies in the metallicity-luminosity correlation foundby different authors is discussed.

Distribution of star-forming complexes in dwarf irregular galaxies
We study the distribution of bright star-forming complexes in ahomogeneous sample of 72 late-type (``irregular'') dwarf galaxieslocated within the 10 Mpc volume. Star-forming complexes are identifiedas bright lumps in B-band galaxy images and isolated by means of theunsharp-masking method. For the sample as a whole the radial numberdistribution of bright lumps largely traces the underlyingexponential-disk light profiles, but peaks at a 10 percent smaller scalelength. Moreover, the presence of a tail of star forming regions out toat least six optical scale lengths provides evidence against asystematic star formation truncation within that galaxy extension.Considering these findings, we apply a scale length-independentconcentration index, taking into account the implied non-uniform randomspread of star formation regions throughout the disk. The numberprofiles frequently manifest a second, minor peak at about two scalelengths. Relying on a two-dimensional stochastic self-propagating starformation model, we show these secondary peaks to be consistent withtriggered star formation; for a few of the brighter galaxies a peculiarpeak distribution is observed that is conceivably due to the onset ofshear provided by differential rotation. On scales between 100 and 1000pc, and by taking into account exponential-disk structure, bright lumpsreveal cluster dimensions between 1.3 and 2, with a weak trend to higherdimensions for brighter galaxies. Cluster dimension weaklyanticorrelates with the lumpiness index (the fraction of the totalgalaxy light due to the light contributed by the lumps), the latterindex showing no dependence on luminosity. Lump spreading within thedisk, as measured by the concentration index, and lump clustering, asgiven by the cluster dimension, are not linked to each other.Interpreting cluster dimension in terms of porosity of a self-similarintragalactic medium, we derive a relation between current starformation rate, scale length, and porosity.

Local galaxy flows within 5 Mpc
We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images of sixteen dwarf galaxiesas part of our snapshot survey of nearby galaxy candidates. We derivetheir distances from the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branchstars with a typical accuracy of ~ 12%. The resulting distances are4.26 Mpc (KKH 5), 4.74 Mpc (KK 16), 4.72 Mpc (KK 17), 4.66 Mpc (ESO115-021), 4.43 Mpc (KKH 18), 3.98 Mpc (KK 27), 4.61 Mpc (KKH 34), 4.99Mpc (KK 54), 4.23 Mpc (ESO 490-017), 4.90 Mpc (FG 202), 5.22 Mpc (UGC3755), 5.18 Mpc (UGC 3974), 4.51 Mpc (KK 65), 5.49 Mpc (UGC 4115), 3.78Mpc (NGC 2915), and 5.27 Mpc (NGC 6503). Based on distances and radialvelocities of 156 nearby galaxies, we plot the local velocity-distancerelation, which has a slope of H0 = 73 km s-1Mpc-1 and a radial velocity dispersion of 85 kms-1. When members of the M81 and Cen A groups are removed,and distance errors are taken into account, the radial velocitydispersion drops to sigmav = 41 km s-1. The localHubble flow within 5 Mpc exhibits a significant anisotropy, with twoinfall peculiar velocity regions directed towards the Supergalacticpoles. However, two observed regions of outflow peculiar velocity,situated on the Supergalactic equator, are far away ( ~ 50degr ) fromthe Virgo/anti-Virgo direction, which disagrees with a sphericallysymmetric Virgo-centric flow. About 63% of galaxies within 5 Mpc belongto known compact and loose groups. Apart from them, we found six newprobable groups, consisting entirely of dwarf galaxies.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. TheSpace Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 2, and Figs. 1 and 2, are only availablein electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Galaxy flow in the Canes Venatici I cloud
We present an analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images ofeighteen galaxies in the Canes Venatici I cloud. We derive theirdistances from the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch starswith a typical accuracy of ~ 12%. The resulting distances are 3.9 Mpc(UGC 6541), 4.9 Mpc (NGC 3738), 3.0 Mpc (NGC 3741), 4.5 Mpc (KK 109),>6.3 Mpc (NGC 4150), 4.2 Mpc (UGC 7298), 4.5 Mpc (NGC 4244), 4.6 Mpc(NGC 4395), 4.9 Mpc (UGC 7559), 4.2 Mpc (NGC 4449), 4.4 Mpc (UGC 7605),4.6 Mpc (IC 3687), 4.7 Mpc (KK 166), 4.7 Mpc (NGC 4736), 4.2 Mpc (UGC8308), 4.3 Mpc (UGC 8320), 4.6 Mpc (NGC 5204), and 3.2 Mpc (UGC 8833).The CVn I cloud has a mean radial velocity of 286 +/- 9 kms-1, a mean distance of 4.1 +/- 0.2 Mpc, a radial velocitydispersion of 50 km s-1, a mean projected radius of 760 kpc,and a total blue luminosity of 2.2 x 1010 Lsun .Assuming virial or closed orbital motions for the galaxies, we estimatedtheir virial and their orbital mass-to-luminosity ratio to be 176 and 88Msun /Lsun , respectively. However, the CVn Icloud is characterized by a crossing time of 15 Gyr, and is thus farfrom a state of dynamical equilibrium. The large crossing time for thecloud, its low content of dSph galaxies (<6%), and the almost``primordial'' shape of its luminosity function show that the CVn Icomplex is in a transient dynamical state, driven rather by the freeHubble expansion than by galaxy interactions.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. TheSpace Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Figures 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The Dwarf Irregular/Wolf-Rayet Galaxy NGC 4214. I. A New Distance, Stellar Content, and Global Parameters
We present the results of a detailed optical and near-IR study of thenearby star-forming dwarf galaxy NGC 4214. We discuss the stellarcontent, drawing particular attention to the intermediate-age and/or oldfield stars, which are used as a distance indicator. On images obtainedwith the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 andNear-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) instrumentsin the equivalents of the V, R, I, J and H bands, the galaxy is wellresolved into stars. We achieve limiting magnitudes of F814W~27 in theWF chips and F110W~25 in the NICMOS 2 camera. The optical andnear-infrared color-magnitude diagrams confirm a core-halo galaxymorphology: an inner, high surface brightness, young population within~1.5′ (~1 kpc) from the center of the galaxy, where the stars areconcentrated in bright complexes along a barlike structure, and arelatively low surface brightness, field star population extending outto at least 8' (7 kpc). The color-magnitude diagrams of the core regionshow evidence of blue and red supergiants, main-sequence stars,asymptotic giant branch stars, and blue loop stars. We identify somecandidate carbon stars from their extreme near-IR color. The field-starpopulation is dominated by the ``red tangle,'' which contains the redgiant branch. We use the I-band luminosity function to determine thedistance based on the tip of the red giant branch method: 2.7+/-0.3 Mpc.This is much closer than the values usually assumed in the literature,and we provide revised distance-dependent parameters such as physicalsize, luminosity, H I mass, and star formation rate. From the mean colorof the red giant branch in V and I, we estimate the mean metal abundanceof this population to be [Fe/H]~=-1.7 dex, with a large internalabundance spread characterized by σint([Fe/H])~1 dex.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., underNASA contract NAS 5-26555.

The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. II. R-band surface photometry of late-type dwarf galaxies
R-band surface photometry is presented for 171 late-type dwarf andirregular galaxies. For a subsample of 46 galaxies B-band photometry ispresented as well. We present surface brightness profiles as well asisophotal and photometric parameters including magnitudes, diameters andcentral surface brightnesses. Absolute photometry is accurate to 0.1 magor better for 77% of the sample. For over 85% of the galaxies the radialsurface brightness profiles are consistent with published data withinthe measured photometric uncertainty. For most of the galaxies in thesample H I data have been obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope. The galaxies in our sample are part of the WHISP project(Westerbork H I Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies), which aims atmapping about 500 nearby spiral and irregular galaxies in H I. Theavailability of H I data makes this data set useful for a wide range ofstudies of the structure, dark matter content and kinematics oflate-type dwarf galaxies. Based on observations made with INT operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisicade Canarias. The tables in Appendix A are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/390/863. Thefigures in Appendix B are only available in electronic formhttp://www.edpsciences.org

The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. I. HI imaging of late-type dwarf galaxies
Neutral hydrogen observations with the Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope are presented for a sample of 73 late-type dwarf galaxies.These observations are part of the WHISP project (Westerbork H I Surveyof Spiral and Irregular Galaxies). Here we present H I maps, velocityfields, global profiles and radial surface density profiles of H I, aswell as H I masses, H I radii and line widths. For the late-typegalaxies in our sample, we find that the ratio of H I extent to opticaldiameter, defined as 6.4 disk scale lengths, is on average 1.8 +/- 0.8,similar to that seen in spiral galaxies. Most of the dwarf galaxies inthis sample are rich in H I, with a typical Mion {Hi}/L_B of1.5. The relative H I content M_ion {HI}/L_R increases towards fainterabsolute magnitudes and towards fainter surface brightnesses. Dwarfgalaxies with lower average H I column densities also have lower averageoptical surface brightnesses. We find that lopsidedness is as commonamong dwarf galaxies as it is in spiral galaxies. About half of thedwarf galaxies in our sample have asymmetric global profiles, a thirdhas a lopsided H I distribution, and about half shows signs of kinematiclopsidedness.

Structure and stellar content of dwarf galaxies. VII. B and R photometry of 25 southern field dwarfs and a disk parameter analysis of the complete sample of nearby irregulars
We present B and R band surface photometry of 25 Southern field dwarfgalaxies within a distance of 10 Mpc. For each galaxy we give theessential model-free photometric parameters and, by fitting exponentialsto the surface brightness profiles, the central extrapolated surfacebrightness and the exponential scale length, in both colour bands.Surface brightness and colour profiles are shown. One of the objects, avery faint dwarf elliptical in the vicinity of NGC 2784, has beendiscovered in the course of this work. Drawing on the data from this andall previous papers of this series, we construct a complete sample of 72late-type (``irregular'') dwarf galaxies in nearby groups and the fieldwithin the 10 Mpc volume, to study the exponential-disk parameterrelations of these galaxies with respect to galaxy environment. Weconfirm our previous finding of statistically lower scale lengths/highercentral surface brightnesses for field and group galaxies as compared tocluster galaxies. However, using a clear-cut definition of ``group''versus ``field'' environment, we find no significant difference in thephotometric structure of group and field irregulars. A difference in thestar formation history may partly account for this structure-environmentrelation: for a given luminosity cluster dwarfs are on average redderthan field and group galaxies. We also report evidence for the colourgradients of dwarf irregulars being roughly inversely proportional tothe disk scale lengths. Supplementing our photometric data withkinematic data from the literature, we study possible relations withkinematic properties of the inner disk. Applying the dark matter scalingrelations for a Burkert halo we show that for field and group galaxiesof a given luminosity faster-than-mean disk rotational velocities at aradius of about two scale lengths are correlated with larger-than-meandisk scale lengths. Based on observations collected at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 3 containing ``BRphotometry and kinematic data for the 72 irregular dwarf galaxies of ourcomplete sample'' is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/388/29

The M 81 group of galaxies: New distances, kinematics and structure
We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images of the galaxies NGC 2366,NGC 2976, NGC 4236, IC 2574, DDO 53, DDO 82, DDO 165, Holmberg I,Holmberg II, Holmberg IX, K52, K73, BK3N, Garland, and A0952+69 in the M81 complex. Their true distance moduli, derived from the brightness ofthe tip of the red giant branch, lie in the range of 27fm 52 (NGC 2366)to 28fm 30 (DDO 165), with a median of 27fm 91, which is typical forother known M 81 group members. Using distances and radial velocities ofabout 50 galaxies in and around the M 81/NGC 2403 complex, we find theradius of the zero-velocity surface of the M 81 group to be R_0 =(1.05+/-0.07) Mpc, which yields a total mass M(R_0) = (1.6+/-0.3)x1012 Msun and a total mass-to-luminosity ratioM(R_0)/L_B = (38+/-7) Msun/Lsun. The total masswithin R_0 agrees well with the sum of masses estimated via the virialtheorem (1.2x 1012 Msun) and from orbital motions(2.0x 1012 Msun) of companions around M 81 and NGC2403. We suggest that most of the dark matter in the group isconcentrated around the luminous matter, allowing us to explain theobserved asymmetry of the peculiar motions of the M 81 companions. M 81itself has a peculiar velocity of about 130 km s-1 withrespect to the local Hubble flow, but the centroid of the M 81/NGC 2403complex is almost at rest with respect to Hubble flow (v_pec < 35 kms-1). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA HubbleSpace Telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. underNASA contract NAS 5-26555. Figures 2 to 5 are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Local Field of Galaxy Velocities
A sample of 145 galaxies having radial velocities relative to thecentroid of the Local Group V LG D H ij , with principal values of81:62:48 in km/sec·Mpc, which have a standard error of 4km/sec·Mpc. The minor axis of the Hubble ellipsoid is orientedalmost along the polar axis of the Local Supercluster, while the majoraxis forms an angle = (29 ± 5)° with the direction toward thecenter of the Virgo Cluster. Such a configuration of thepeculiar-velocity field shows unsatisfactory agreement with the model ofa spherically symmetric flow of galaxies toward the Virgo Cluster.Rotation of the Local Supercluster may be one reason for thisdifference. The peculiar velocities of galaxies within a volume with D V= 74 km/sec, a considerable part of which is due to the virial motionsof galaxies in groups and to distance errors. For field galaxies,located in a layer of 1 < D < 3 Mpc around the Local Group, theradial-velocity dispersion does not exceed 25 km/sec. Thevelocity—distance relation, constructed from the 20 closestgalaxies around the Local Group with D < 3 Mpc and with errorsσ(D) < 0.2 Mpc, exhibits the expected effect of gravitationaldeceleration. Using the estimate of R 0 = (0.96 ± 0.05) Mpc forthe observed radius of the zero-velocity sphere, we determined the totalmass of the Local Group to be (1.2 ± 0.2)·1012 M ȯ,which agrees well with the sum of the virial masses of the subgroups ofgalaxies around the Local Group and M31. The ratio of the Local Group'stotal mass (within R 0) to its luminosity is M/L = (23 ± 4) Mȯ/L ȯ, which does not require the existence of supermassivedark halos around our Galaxy and M31.

Structure and stellar content of dwarf galaxies. IV. B and R photometry of dwarf galaxies in the CVnI cloud
We have carried out CCD photometry in the Cousins B and R bands of 15galaxies in the Canes Venatici I cloud. Total magnitudes, effectiveradii, effective surface brightnesses, as well as galaxy radii atvarious isophotal levels in both colors were determined. Best-fittingexponential parameters and color gradients are also given for thesegalaxies. The photometric parameters presented here will be analyzed ina forthcoming paper, together with previously published data for nearbydwarf galaxies. Based on observations made at Observatoire de HauteProvence (CNRS), France.}

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Neutral Hydrogen and Star Formation in the Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449
We present high-resolution interferometric data of the inner 30' of theH I gas of the irregular galaxy NGC 4449. In addition to the previouslyknown two counter-rotating gas systems, the H I exhibits an unusual ringmorphology and high velocity dispersions in the outer part of theoptical galaxy. In addition the position angle and inclination of theouter gas are moderately different from those of the optical galaxy. Theposition angle and inclination of the inner gas system are approximatelysimilar to those of the inner optical galaxy only if strong deviationsfrom ordered motion in the center are ignored. The H I interstellarmedium appears to be fragmented into clouds, which are similar to cloudsobserved in other galaxies. There is very little correlation between theH I surface density and Hα surface brightness. The opticalisophotes of the galaxy define three different and distinct positionangles and inclinations. The inner structure is similar in properties toa bar structure that includes a large fraction of the optical galaxy.The nature of the middle structure is unclear. Exterior to these barsare unusual faint filamentary structures. The V- and J-band surfacephotometry are well fit by an exponential disk to low surface brightnesslevels, including the bar structures. However, the central surfacebrightness is unusually bright. The star formation activity comparedover three different time scales as a function of radius is fairlyconsistent. In the optical there are also unusual extensions at lowlight levels in the outskirts of the galaxy. Many characteristics of thegas and stars are consistent with a picture in which NGC 4449 has beendisturbed by an external perturber, and the gas has not yet returned toequilibrium.

Multi-colour photometry of nearby dwarf galaxies
Observations of 39 nearby, mostly dwarf galaxies are presented. Theobservations were carried out at the 1.2-m telescope of Observatoire deHaute-Provence (France) with B, V and I Cousins filters. Based onsurface and integrated photometry of the obtained images we derivedtotal B, V and I magnitudes and integrated B-V, V-I colours as well asradii and magnitudes at the 25 m isophotal level. Azimuthally averagedsurface brightness profiles were derived for 33 galaxies in eachphotometric band. Most of the profiles can be well fitted by anexponential intensity law of brightness distribution. The best-fittingexponential parameters are also given for the galaxies. Based onobservations made at Observatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France.Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

HI properties of nearby galaxies from a volume-limited sample
We consider global HI and optical properties of about three hundrednearby galaxies with V_0 < 500 km s(-1) . The majority of them haveindividual photometric distance estimates. The galaxy sample parametersshow some known and some new correlations implying a meaningful dynamicexplanation: 1) In the whole range of diameters, 1 - 40 Kpc, the galaxystandard diameter and rotational velocity follows a nearly linearTully-Fisher relation, lg A25~(0.99+/-0.06)lg V_m. 2) The HImass-to-luminosity ratio and the HI mass-to-``total" mass (inside thestandard optical diameter) ratio increase systematically from giantgalaxies towards dwarfs, reaching maximum values 5 ;M_ȯ/L_ȯand 3, respectively. 3) For all the Local Volume galaxies their totalmass-to-luminosity ratio lies within a range of [0.2-16]M_ȯ/L_ȯ with a median of 3.0 ;M_ȯ/L_ȯ. TheM25/L ratio decreases slightly from giant towards dwarfgalaxies. 4) The M_HI/L and M25/L ratios for the samplegalaxies correlate with their mean optical surface brightness, which maybe caused by star formation activity in the galaxies. 5) The M_HI/L andM25/L ratios are practically independent of the local massdensity of surrounding galaxies within the range of densities of aboutsix orders of magnitude. 6) For the LV galaxies their HI mass andangular momentum follow a nearly linear relation: lgM_HI~(0.99+/-0.04)lg (V_m* A25), expected for rotatinggaseous disks being near the threshold of gravitational instability,favourable for active star formation. Table in the Appendix is availableonly in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp//cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Asymmetry in high-precision global H I profiles of isolated spiral galaxies
New high-SNR 21 cm H I line profiles have been obtained for 104 galaxieswith the Green Bank 43 m telescope. The primary sample is composed ofisolated spirals with no known optical companions within a 1 radius anda median ratio of optical diameter to beamwidth of 0.17. An effort wasmade to ensure linearity of baseline fitting and precise flux densitycalibration to better than 5 percent. Two quantitative measures ofasymmetry are applied to assess the occurrence of lopsidedness in theglobal H I profiles. In agreement with previous estimates, half thegalaxies show significant H I profile asymmetries. The lopsidednesscannot be explained by pointing offsets but, rather, must result fromnoncircular motions, confusion with unidentified companions within thetelescope beam, or true distortions in the H I distribution.

Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Detailed images and distance measurements for eighteen dwarf irregular galaxies in the Canes Venatici cloud
In the Canes Venatici cloud, eighteen dwarf irregular galaxies wereobserved in B, V bands at the Nordic Optical Telescope under a seeing ofone arcsec. Most of the galaxies having radial velocities V_0 < 500km/s have been resolved into stars for the first time. The galaxydistances were derived based on photometry of their brightest bluestars. Distances to some of the galaxies: UGC 6782, UGC 7131 and,probably, K 215, which are located at the CVn southern edge, wereestimated to be about 15 Mpc, which is typical of the Virgo clusteroutskirts. For two LSB galaxies, K 200 and K 215, the distances may beoverestimated, probably because of a lack of young massive stars. Forthe remaining galaxies: UGC 7559, UGC 7599, UGC 7605, UGC 7639, UGC7698, UGCA 290, UGCA 292, UGC 7866, UGC 8024, UGC 8638, UGC 8651, UGC8760, and UGC 8833 the estimated distances range from 2.3 to 8.0 Mpc,indicating their actual membership in the CVn cloud. Several objectsstudied here (UGC 7605, UGC 7639, UGC 8638, UGC 8833) have awell-resolved bluish core and regular yellow outer parts, which maypoint to composite (new and old) populations. The galaxy UGCA 292 = CVndwA has unusual global parameters: (B-V)_T=+0.08, M_T=-11.4, M(HI)/L_B =6\ M_sun/L_sun and M(HI)/M_T =0.7, being, perhaps, one of the youngestknown objects in the Local Universe. Table 2 to 19 are only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Z-L relationship of dwarf irregular galaxies. I. First results
{We have revisited the stated relation between the metallicity and theluminosity for nearby dwarf irregular galaxies. A sample based on theabsolute magnitude and the radius of the galaxies as observable criteriawas selected. New and better distance determinations from the literaturewere used and the metallicities were recalculated from publishedspectra. The derived distribution of dwarf galaxies in the Z-L plane isdifferent from the ones previously obtained. A factor which could havebearing on the Z-L relation is the different environment where thegalaxies reside. This was investigated using the selected sample but nofirm conclusion could be drawn and a more elaborate study should be madeusing a larger= sample. The two parameters mostly used for determiningthe metallicity and the luminosity are the oxygen abundance and theabsolute blue magnitude. In this analysis it is suggested that thenitrogen abundance and the near-infrared absolute magnitude should beused instead. These are less affected by the recent star formationhistory of the galaxy.}

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:12h04m01.10s
Aparent dimensions:2.239′ × 1.318′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 4068

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