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 Chemical compositions and plasma parameters of planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet and wels type central starsAims.Chemical compositions and other properties of planetary nebulaearound central stars of spectral types [WC], [WO], and wels are comparedwith those of “normal” central stars, in order to clarifythe evolutionary status of each type and their interrelation. Methods:We use plasma diagnostics to derive from optical spectra the plasmaparameters and chemical compositions of 48 planetary nebulae. We alsoreanalyze the published spectra of a sample of 167 non-WR PN. Theresults as well as the observational data are compared in detail withthose from other studies of the objects in common. Results: We confirmthat [WC], [WO] and wels nebulae are very similar to those“normal” PN: the relation between [N II] and [O III]electron temperatures, abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S and Ar, and thenumber of ionizing photons show no significant differences. However,some differences are observed in their infrared (IRAS) properties. welsnebulae appear bluer than [WR] PN. The central star's spectral type isclearly correlated with electron density, temperature and excitationclass of the nebula, [WC] nebulae tend to be smaller than the othertypes. All this corroborates the view of an evolutionary sequence fromcool [WC 11] central stars inside dense, low excitation nebulae towardshot [WO 1] stars with low density, high excitation nebulae. The wels PN,however, appear to be a separate class of objects, not linked to WRPN byevolution: nebular excitation, electron temperature and density, and thenumber of ionizing photons all cover the whole range found in the othertypes. Their lower mean N/O ratio and slightlylower He/H suggestprogenitor stars less massive than for the other PN types. Furthermore,the differences between results of different works are dominated by thedifferences in observational data rather than differences in theanalysis methods.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla, Chile. Table 3 and Appendices are only available inelectronic form at http://www.aanda.org Table with fluxes andintensities is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/463/265 Search for Compact Extragalactic Radio Sources near Massive Star-forming RegionsWe have used the Very Large Array to search for compactmilliarcsecond-size radio sources near methanol masers in high-massstar-forming regions. Such sources are required for very long baselineInterferometry phase-referencing observations. We conducted pointedobservations of 234 compact sources found in the NVSS survey and find 92sources with unresolved components and synchrotron spectral indexes.These sources are likely the cores of AGNs and, thus, are goodcandidates for astrometric calibrators. The structure of planetary nebulae: theory vs. practiceContext.This paper is the first in a short series dedicated to thelong-standing astronomical problem of de-projecting the bi-dimensional,apparent morphology of a three-dimensional mass of gas. Aims.Wefocus on the density distribution in real planetary nebulae (and alltypes of expanding nebulae). Methods. We introduce some basictheoretical notions, discuss the observational methodology, and developan accurate procedure for determining the matter radial profile withinthe sharp portion of nebula in the plane of the sky identified by thezero-velocity-pixel-column (zvpc) of high-resolution spectral images.Results. The general and specific applications of the method (andsome caveats) are discussed. Moreover, we present a series of evolutivesnapshots, combining illustrative examples of both model and trueplanetary nebulae. Conclusions. The zvpc radial-densityreconstruction - added to tomography and 3D recovery developed at theAstronomical Observatory of Padua (Italy) - constitutes a very usefultool for looking more closely at the spatio-kinematics, physicalconditions, ionic structure, and evolution of expanding nebulae. Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Wolf-Rayet Nuclei III. Kinematical Analysis of a Large Sample of NebulaeExpansion velocities (V_{exp}) of different ions and line widths at thebase of the lines are measured and analyzed for 24 PNe with [WC]-typenuclei (WRPNe), 9 PNe ionized by WELS (WLPNe) and 14 ordinary PNe. Acomparative study of the kinematical behavior of the sample clearlydemonstrates that WRPNe have on average 40-45% larger V_{exp}, andpossibly more turbulence than WLPNe and ordinary PNe. WLPNe havevelocity fields very much like the ones of ordinary PNe, rather than theones of WRPNe. All the samples (WRPNe, WLPNe and ordinary PNe) showexpansion velocities increasing with age indicators, for example is larger for low-density nebulae and also it is largerfor nebulae around high-temperature stars. This age effect is muchstronger for evolved WRPNe, suggesting that the [WC] winds have beenaccelerating the nebulae for a long time, while for non-WRPNe theacceleration seems to stop at some point when the star reaches atemperature of about 90,000 - 100,000. Non-WR nebulae reach a maximumV_{exp} ≤ 30 km s(-1) evolved WRPNe reach maximum V_{exp} about 40km s(-1) . For all kinds of objects (WRPNe and non-WRPNe) it is foundthat on average V_{exp}(N(+) ) is slightly larger than V_{exp}(O(++) ),indicating that the nebulae present acceleration of the external shells. Hot dust haloes in planetary nebulaeWe point out that many planetary nebulae (PNe) have large infraredindices (H-KS), and that this is likely to result from thepresence of hot grains, and/or H2 S(1) line emission atλ= 2.122μm. We are able to identify two groups of sourcesassociated with each of these mechanisms, both of which appear topossess distinct physical characteristics. One difference between thesegroups concerns the near-infrared dimensions of the sources. It appearsthat hot dust outflows frequently have sizes θ(KS)> θ(H) > θ(J). Four of the sources are particularlyextreme in this regard, and show emission extending well outside of theprimary shells. We propose that this is likely to arise fromhigh-temperature grains located in low-density haloes. The location ofsuch grains at large distances from the central stars represents achallenge for any mechanism purporting to explain this phenomenon. Themost likely explanation appears to be in terms of photon heating of verysmall grains. The distances of less-evolved planetary nebulae: a further test of statistical distance scalesIt has recently been pointed out that a number of the methods used todetermine planetary nebulae (PNe) distances may be appreciably in error.Whilst the scales of Zhang (1995), Bensby & Lundstrom (2001) andothers are appropriate for higher radio brightness temperaturesTB, those of Phillips and Daub are more relevant whereTB is small.We note, in the following, that the absolute bolometric magnitudes ofless-evolved PNe are likely to be similar. The mean value of can therefore be used to constrain PNe distancesD, and confirm the distance scales for higher TB outflows. Wehave used this procedure to evaluate distances to a further 47 PNe, andwe find that the mean values of are consistent with those ofCahn, Kaler & Stanghellini (1992), Zhang (1995), Phillips et al.(2004) and van de Steene & Zijlstra (1995). They are, as expected,inconsistent with the lower TB scale of Phillips (2002a). The mean properties of planetary nebulae as a function of Peimbert classPlanetary nebulae are known to possess a broad range of abundances, andthese (with other characteristics) have been used to define five classesof outflow. Peimbert Type I sources, for instance, possess high N and Heabundances, filamentary structures, and low mean scaleheights above theGalactic plane, whilst those of Type III have much lower abundances,high peculiar velocities, and belong to the Galactic thick disc. Apartfrom some rather ill-defined indications, however, very little is knownconcerning their mean physical, spatial, structural, kinematic andthermal characteristics.We have performed a comprehensive study of all of these properties, andfind evidence for strong variations between the various Peimbertclasses. Certain of these differences are consistent with Type I sourceshaving the highest progenitor masses, although it seems that thesenebulae also possess the lowest rms densities and 5-GHz brightnesstemperatures. The latter results are in conflict with a range of recentmodelling. The Chemical Composition of Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Regard to Inhomogeneity in the Gas Density in Their EnvelopesThe results of a study of the chemical compositions of Galacticplanetary nebulae taking into account two types of inhomogeneity in thenebular gas density in their envelopes are reported. New analyticalexpressions for the ionization correction factors have been derived andare used to determine the chemical compositions of the nebular gas inGalactic planetary nebulae. The abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Arhave been found for 193 objects. The Y Z diagrams for various Heabundances are analyzed for type II planetary nebulae separately andjointly with HII regions. The primordial helium abundance Y p andenrichment ratio dY/dZ are determined, and the resulting values arecompared with the data of other authors. Radial abundance gradients inthe Galactic disk are studied using type II planetary nebulae. Helium recombination spectra as temperature diagnostics for planetary nebulaeElectron temperatures derived from the HeI recombination line ratios,designated Te(HeI), are presented for 48 planetary nebulae(PNe). We study the effect that temperature fluctuations inside nebulaehave on the Te(HeI) value. We show that a comparison betweenTe(HeI) and the electron temperature derived from the Balmerjump of the HI recombination spectrum, designated Te(HI),provides an opportunity to discriminate between the paradigms of achemically homogeneous plasma with temperature and density variations,and a two-abundance nebular model with hydrogen-deficient materialembedded in diffuse gas of a normal' chemical composition (i.e.~solar), as the possible causes of the dichotomy between the abundancesthat are deduced from collisionally excited lines and those deduced fromrecombination lines. We find that Te(HeI) values aresignificantly lower than Te(HI) values, with an averagedifference of = 4000 K. Theresult is consistent with the expectation of the two-abundance nebularmodel but is opposite to the prediction of the scenarios of temperaturefluctuations and/or density inhomogeneities. From the observeddifference between Te(HeI) and Te(HI), we estimatethat the filling factor of hydrogen-deficient components has a typicalvalue of 10-4. In spite of its small mass, the existence ofhydrogen-deficient inclusions may potentially have a profound effect inenhancing the intensities of HeI recombination lines and thereby lead toapparently overestimated helium abundances for PNe. Evolution from AGB to planetary nebula in the MSX surveyWe investigate the evolution of oxygen- and carbon-rich AGB stars,post-AGB objects, and planetary nebulae using data collected mainly fromthe MSX catalogue. Magnitudes and colour indices are compared with thosecalculated from a grid of synthetic spectra that describe the post-AGBevolution beginning at the onset of the superwind. We find that carbonstars and OH/IR objects form two distinct sequences in the (K-[8.3])×([8.3]-[14.7]) MSX colour diagram. OH/IR objects are distributedin two groups: the bluest ones are crowded near [14.7]-[21.3]≃ 1and [8.3]-[14.7]≃ 2, and a second, redder group is spread over alarge area in the diagram, where post-AGB objects and planetary nebulaeare also found. High mass-loss rate OH/IR objects, post-AGB stars, andplanetary nebulae share the same region in the (K-[8.3])×([8.3]-[14.7]) and [14.7]-[21.3]×([8.3]-[14.7]) colour-colourdiagrams. This region in the diagram is clearly separated from a bluerone where most OH/IR stars are found. We use a grid of models ofpost-AGB evolution, which are compared with the data. The gap in thecolour-colour diagrams is interpreted as the result of the rapidtrajectory in the diagram of the stars that have just left the AGB.Based on results obtained by the MSX survey.Tables 1 to 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/565 Some implications of the introduction of scattered starlight in the spectrum of reddened starsThis paper presents new investigations on coherent scattering in theforward direction (orders of magnitude; conservation of energy;dependence of scattered light on geometry and wavelength), and on howscattered light contamination in the spectrum of reddened stars ispossibly related to as yet unexplained observations (the diminution ofthe 2200 Å bump when the obscuring material is close to the star,the difference between Hipparcos and photometric distances). This paperthen goes on to discuss the fit of the extinction curve, a possible roleof extinction by the gas in the far-UV, and the reasons of theinadequacy of the Fitzpatrick and Massa [ApJSS, 72 (1990) 163] fit. A reexamination of electron density diagnostics for ionized gaseous nebulaeWe present a comparison of electron densities derived from opticalforbidden line diagnostic ratios for a sample of over a hundred nebulae.We consider four density indicators, the [O II]λ3729/λ3726, [S II] λ6716/λ6731, [Cl III]λ5517/λ5537 and [Ar IV] λ4711/λ4740 doubletratios. Except for a few H II regions for which data from the literaturewere used, diagnostic line ratios were derived from our own high qualityspectra. For the [O II] λ3729/λ3726 doublet ratio, we findthat our default atomic data set, consisting of transition probabilitiesfrom Zeippen (\cite{zeippen1982}) and collision strengths from Pradhan(\cite{pradhan}), fit the observations well, although at high electrondensities, the [O II] doublet ratio yields densities systematicallylower than those given by the [S II] λ6716/λ6731 doubletratio, suggesting that the ratio of transition probabilities of the [OII] doublet, A(λ3729)/A(λ3726), given by Zeippen(\cite{zeippen1982}) may need to be revised upwards by approximately 6per cent. Our analysis also shows that the more recent calculations of[O II] transition probabilities by Zeippen (\cite{zeippen1987a}) andcollision strengths by McLaughlin & Bell (\cite{mclaughlin}) areinconsistent with the observations at the high and low density limits,respectively, and can therefore be ruled out. We confirm the earlierresult of Copetti & Writzl (\cite{copetti2002}) that the [O II]transition probabilities calculated by Wiese et al. (\cite{wiese}) yieldelectron densities systematically lower than those deduced from the [SII] λ6716/λ6731 doublet ratio and that the discrepancy ismost likely caused by errors in the transition probabilities calculatedby Wiese et al. (\cite{wiese}). Using our default atomic data set for [OII], we find that Ne([O II])  Ne([S II]) ≈Ne([Cl III])< Ne([Ar IV]). The populations of planetary nebulae in the direction of the Galactic bulge. Chemical abundances and Wolf-Rayet central starsWe have observed 44 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the direction of theGalactic bulge, and merged our data with published ones. We havedistinguished, in the merged sample of 164 PNe, those PNe most likely toprtain physically to the Galactic bulge and those most likely to belongto the Galactic disk. We have determined the chemical composition of allthe 164 objects in a coherent way. We looked for stellar emissionfeatures and discovered 14 new [WR] stars and 15 new weak emission linecentral stars. The analyzed data led us to the following conclusions:(1) the spectral type distribution of [WR] stars is very different inthe bulge and in the disk of the Galaxy. However, the observeddistributions are strongly dependent on selection effects. (2) Theproportion of [WR] PNe is significantly larger in the bulge than in thedisk. (3) The oxygen abundances in [WR] stars do no appear to besignificantly affected by nucleosynthesis and mixing in the progenitors.(4) The O/H gradient of the Galactic disk PNe population flattens in themost internal parts of the Galaxy. (5) The median oxygen abundance inthe bulge PN population is larger by 0.2 dex than in the disk populationseen in the direction of the bulge. (6) Bulge PNe with smaller O/H tendto have smaller radial velocities. (7) The oxygen abundance distributionof bulge PNe is similar in shape to that of the metallicity distributionof bulge giants, but significantly narrower. (8) The location ofSB 32 (PN G 349.7-09.1) in the(Vlsr, lII) diagram and its low oxygen abundanceargues that it probably belongs to the halo population.Based on observations made at the South African AstronomicalObservatory.Tables 1-3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http: / /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/427/231 Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scaleThe distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy. On the O II Ground Configuration Energy LevelsThe most accurate way to measure the energy levels for the O II2p3 ground configuration has been from the forbidden lines inplanetary nebulae. We present an analysis of modern planetary nebuladata that nicely constrain the splitting within the 2D termand the separation of this term from the ground4S3/2 level. We extend this method to H II regionsusing high-resolution spectroscopy of the Orion Nebula, covering all sixvisible transitions within the ground configuration. These data confirmthe splitting of the 2D term while additionally constrainingthe splitting of the 2P term. The energies of the2P and 2D terms relative to the ground(4S) term are constrained by requiring that all six linesgive the same radial velocity, consistent with independent limits placedon the motion of the O+ gas and the planetary nebula data. Electron temperatures and densities of planetary nebulae determined from the nebular hydrogen recombination spectrum and temperature and density variationsA method is presented to derive electron temperatures and densities ofplanetary nebulae (PNe) simultaneously, using the observed hydrogenrecombination spectrum, which includes continuum and line emission. Bymatching theoretical spectra to observed spectra around the Balmer jumpat about 3646 Å, we determine electron temperatures and densitiesfor 48 Galactic PNe. The electron temperatures based on this method -hereafter Te(Bal) - are found to be systematically lower thanthose derived from [OIII] λ4959/λ4363 and [OIII] (88 μm+ 52 μm)/λ4959 ratios - hereafterTe([OIII]na) andTe([OIII]fn). The electron densities based on thismethod are found to be systematically higher than those derived from[OII] λ3729/λ3726, [SII] λ6731/λ6716,[ClIII] λ5537/λ5517, [ArIV] λ4740/λ4711 and[OIII] 88 μm/52 μm ratios. These results suggest that temperatureand density fluctuations are generally present within nebulae. Thecomparison of Te([OIII]na) and Te(Bal)suggests that the fractional mean-square temperature variation(t2) has a representative value of 0.031. A majority oftemperatures derived from the Te([OIII]fn) ratioare found to be higher than those of Te([OIII]na),which is attributed to the existence of dense clumps in nebulae - those[OIII] infrared fine-structure lines are suppressed by collisionalde-excitation in the clumps. By comparingTe([OIII]fn), Te([OIII]na)and Te(Bal) and assuming a simple two-density-componentmodel, we find that the filling factor of dense clumps has arepresentative value of 7 × 10-5. The discrepanciesbetween Te([OIII]na) and Te(Bal) arefound to be anticorrelated with electron densities derived from variousdensity indicators; high-density nebulae have the smallest temperaturediscrepancies. This suggests that temperature discrepancy is related tonebular evolution. In addition, He/H abundances of PNe are found to bepositively correlated with the difference betweenTe([OIII]na) and Te(Bal), suggestingthat He/H abundances might have been overestimated generally because ofthe possible existence of H-deficient knots. Electron temperatures anddensities deduced from spectra around the Paschen jump regions at 8250Åare also obtained for four PNe: NGC 7027, NGC 6153, M 1-42 andNGC 7009. Electron densities derived from spectra around the Paschenjump regions are in good agreement with the corresponding values derivedfrom spectra around the Balmer jump, whereas temperatures deduced fromthe spectra around the Paschen jump are found to be lower than thecorresponding values derived from spectra around the Balmer jump for allthe four cases. The reason remains unclear. A reanalysis of chemical abundances in galactic PNe and comparison with theoretical predictions New determinations of chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, Ar and Sare derived for all galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) so far observedwith a relatively high accuracy, in an effort to overcome differences inthese quantities obtained over the years by different authors usingdifferent procedures. These include: ways to correct for interstellarextinction, the atomic data used to interpret the observed line fluxes,the model nebula adopted to represent real objects and the ionizationcorrections for unseen ions. A unique good quality' classical-typeprocedure, i.e. making use of collisionally excited forbidden lines toderive ionic abundances of heavy ions, has been applied to allindividual sets of observed line fluxes in each specific position withineach PN. Only observational data obtained with linear detectors, andsatisfying some quality' criteria, have been considered. Suchobservations go from the mid-1970s up to the end of 2001. Theobservational errors associated with individual line fluxes have beenpropagated through the whole procedure to obtain an estimate of theaccuracy of final abundances independent of an author's prejudices'.Comparison of the final abundances with those obtained in relevantmulti-object studies on the one hand allowed us to assess the accuracyof the new abundances, and on the other hand proved the usefulness ofthe present work, the basic purpose of which was to take full advantageof the vast amount of observations done so far of galactic PNe, handlingthem in a proper homogeneous way. The number of resulting PNe that havedata of an adequate quality to pass the present selection amounts to131. We believe that the new derived abundances constitute a highlyhomogeneous chemical data set on galactic PNe, with realisticuncertainties, and form a good observational basis for comparison withthe growing number of predictions from stellar evolution theory. Owingto the known discrepancies between the ionic abundances of heavyelements derived from the strong collisonally excited forbidden linesand those derived from the weak, temperature-insensitive recombinationlines, it is recognized that only abundance ratios between heavyelements can be considered as satisfactorily accurate. A comparison withtheoretical predictions allowed us to assess the state of the art inthis topic in any case, providing some findings and suggestions forfurther theoretical and observational work to advance our understandingof the evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae. IV. Synthesis and the Sulfur AnomalyWe have compiled a large sample of O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar abundances thathave been determined for 85 Galactic planetary nebulae in a consistentand homogeneous manner using spectra extending from 3600 to 9600Å. Sulfur abundances have been computed using the near-IR lines of[S III] λλ9069, 9532 along with [S III] temperatures. Wefind average values, expressed logarithmically with a standarddeviation, of log(S/O)=-1.91+/-0.24, log(Cl/O)=-3.52+/-0.16, andlog(Ar/O)=-2.29+/-0.18, numbers consistent with previous studies of bothplanetary nebulae and H II regions. We also find a strong correlationbetween [O III] and [S III] temperatures among planetary nebulae. Inanalyzing abundances of Ne, S, Cl, and Ar with respect to O, we find atight correlation for Ne-O, and loose correlations for Cl-O and Ar-O.All three trends appear to be colinear with observed correlations for HII regions. S and O also show a correlation, but there is a definiteoffset from the behavior exhibited by H II regions and stars. We suggestthat this S anomaly is most easily explained by the existence ofS+3, whose abundance must be inferred indirectly when onlyoptical spectra are available, in amounts in excess of what is predictedby model-derived ionization correction factors in PNe. Finally for thedisk PNe, abundances of O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar all show gradients whenplotted against Galactocentric distance. The slopes are statisticallyindistinguishable from one another, a result which is consistent withthe notion that the cosmic abundances of these elements evolve inlockstep. Characteristics of Planetary Nebulae with [WC] Central StarsWe have analyzed the plasma diagnostics (electron densities andtemperatures and abundance ratios), and the kinematics of a large sampleof planetary nebulae around [WC] stars by means of high resolutionspectra. The results have been compared with characteristics ofplanetary nebulae around WELS and non-WR central stars. We find that theproportion of nitrogen rich nebulae is larger in WRPNe than innon-WRPNe. None of the 9 nebulae around WELS in our sample showsN-enrichment. WRPNe have larger expansion velocities and/or largerturbulence than non-WRPNe demonstrating that the mechanical energy ofthe massive [WC] stellar wind largely affects the kinematical behaviorof nebulae. A weak relation between stellar temperature and expansionvelocities has been found for all kind of nebulae, indicating that oldernebulae expand faster. The effect is more important for WRPNe. Thiscould be useful in testing the evolutionary sequence [WC]-late ->[WC]-early, proposed for [WC] stars. The relation between Zanstra temperature and morphology in planetary nebulaeWe have created a master list of Zanstra temperatures for 373 galacticplanetary nebulae based upon a compilation of 1575 values taken from thepublished literature. These are used to evaluate mean trends intemperature for differing nebular morphologies. Among the most prominentresults of this analysis is the tendency forη=TZ(HeII)/TZ(HeI) to increase with nebularradius, a trend which is taken to arise from the evolution of shelloptical depths. We find that as many as 87 per cent of nebulae may beoptically thin to H ionizing radiation where radii exceed ~0.16 pc. Wealso note that the distributions of values η and TZ(HeII)are quite different for circular, elliptical and bipolar nebulae. Acomparison of observed temperatures with theoretical H-burning trackssuggests that elliptical and circular sources arise from progenitorswith mean mass ≅ 1 Msolar(although the elliptical progenitors are probably more massive).Higher-temperature elliptical sources are likely to derive fromprogenitors with mass ≅2 Msolar, however, implying thatthese nebulae (at least) are associated with a broad swathe ofprogenitor masses. Such a conclusion is also supported by trends in meangalactic latitude. It is found that higher-temperature ellipticalsources have much lower mean latitudes than those with smallerTZ(HeII), a trend which is explicable where there is anincrease in with increasing TZ(HeII).This latitude-temperature variation also applies for most other sources.Bipolar nebulae appear to have mean progenitor masses ≅2.5Msolar, whilst jets, Brets and other highly collimatedoutflows are associated with progenitors at the other end of the massrange (~ 1 Msolar). Indeed it ispossible, given their large mean latitudes and low peak temperatures,that the latter nebulae are associated with the lowest-mass progenitorsof all.The present results appear fully consistent with earlier analyses basedupon nebular scale heights, shell abundances and the relativeproportions of differing morphologies, and offer further evidence for alink between progenitor mass and morphology. Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinatesWe have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029} Angular dimensions of planetary nebulaeWe have measured angular dimensions of 312 planetary nebulae from theirimages obtained in Hα (or Hα + [NII]). We have appliedthree methods of measurements: direct measurements at the 10% level ofthe peak surface brightness, Gaussian deconvolution and second-momentdeconvolution. The results from the three methods are compared andanalysed. We propose a simple deconvolution of the 10% levelmeasurements which significantly improves the reliability of thesemeasurements for compact and partially resolved nebulae. Gaussiandeconvolution gives consistent but somewhat underestimated diameterscompared to the 10% measurements. Second-moment deconvolution givesresults in poor agreement with those from the other two methods,especially for poorly resolved nebulae. From the results of measurementsand using the conclusions of our analysis we derive the final nebulardiameters which should be free from systematic differences between small(partially resolved) and extended (well resolved) objects in our sample.Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Quantitative classification of WR nuclei of planetary nebulaeWe analyse 42 emission-line nuclei of Planetary Nebulae (PNe), in theframework of a large spectrophotometric survey of [WC] nuclei of PNeconducted since 1994, using low/medium resolution spectra obtained atESO and at OHP. We construct a grid of selected line-intensities(normalized to C Iv-5806 Å= 100) ordered by decreasing ionisationpotential going from 871 to 24 eV. In this grid, the stars appear tobelong clearly to prominent O (hot [WO1-4] types) or C (cooler [WC4-11]types) line-sequences, in agreement with the classification of massiveWR stars applied to Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPNe) byCrowther et al. \cite{crowther98} (CMB98). We propose 20 selected lineratios and the FWHM of C Iv and C Iii lines as classificationdiagnostics, which agree well with the 7 line ratios and the FWHMproposed by CMB98. This classification based on ionisation is related tothe evolution of the temperature and of the stellar wind, reflecting themass-loss history. In particular, inside the hot [WO4]-class, wediscover four stars showing very broad lines over the whole spectralrange. These stars possibly mark the transition from the initialmomentum-driven phase to the later energy-driven phase of the CSPNealong their evolution from the post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB)phase through [WC] late, [WC4] and [WO]-types. The HR diagram and thediagram linking the terminal velocity and the temperature indicatehighly dispersed values of the stellar mass for our sample, around amean mass higher than for normal CSPNe. The distribution of the 42 starsalong the ionisation sequence shows 24% of [WO1-3], 21% of [WO4], 17% of[WC4] hot stars, and 26% of [WC9-11] cool stars. The [WC5-8] classesremain poorly represented (12%). This distribution is confirmed on thebasis of a large compilation of the 127 known emission-lines CSPNe,which represent about 5% of the known PNe.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla (Chile), and at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP,France).Table \ref{liste} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The relation between elemental abundances and morphology in planetary nebulaeAn investigation of the variation of elemental abundances with planetarynebula morphology is of considerable interest, since it has a bearingupon how such sources are formed, and from which progenitors they areejected. Recent advances in morphological classification now enable usto assess such trends for a statistically significant number of sources.We find, as a result, that the distribution N[log(X/H)] of sources withrespect to elemental abundance (X/H) varies between the differingmorphologies. Circular sources tend to peak towards low abundancevalues, whilst bipolar nebulae (BPNe) peak towards somewhat highervalues. This applies for most elemental species, although it is perhapsleast apparent for oxygen. In contrast, elliptical sources appear todisplay much broader functions N[log(X/H)], which trespass upon thedomains of both circular and elliptical planetary nebulae (PNe).We take these trends to imply that circular sources derive fromlower-mass progenitors, bipolar sources from higher-mass stars, and thatelliptical nebulae derive from all masses of progenitor, high and low.Whilst such trends are also evident in values of mean abundance, they are much less clear. Only in the cases of He/H, N/H,Ne/H and perhaps Ar/H is there evidence for significant abundancedifferences.Certain BPNe appear to possess low abundance ratios He/H and Ar/H, andthis confirms that a few such outflows may arise from lower-massprogenitors. Similarly, we note that ratios are quite modestin elliptical planetary nebulae, and not much different from those forcircular and bipolar PNe; a result that conflicts with the expectationsof at least one model of shell formation. Comparative Absorption and Emission Abundance Analyses of Nebulae: Ion Emission Densities for IC 418Recent analyses of nebular spectra have resulted in discrepantabundances from CNO forbidden and recombination lines. We considerindependent methods of determining ion abundances for emission nebulae,comparing ion emission measures with column densities derived fromresonance absorption lines viewed against the central star continuum.Separate analyses of the nebular emission lines and the stellar UVabsorption lines yield independent abundances for ions, and their ratiocan be expressed in terms of a parameterem, the emission density'' for eachion. Adequate data for this technique are still scarce, but separateanalyses of spectra of the planetary nebula and central star of IC 418do show discrepant abundances for several ions, especially Fe II. Thediscrepancies are probably due to the presence of absorbing gas thatdoes not emit and/or to uncertain atomic data and excitation processes,and they demonstrate the importance of applying the technique ofcombining emission- and absorption-line data in deriving abundances fornebulae.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained from the STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555, and on observations made at CTIO/NOAO, which isoperated by AURA, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the NSF. Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae. III. Observations and Results for a Final SampleThis paper is the fourth in a series whose purpose is to study theinterstellar abundances of sulfur, chlorine, and argon in the Galaxyusing a sample of 86 planetary nebulae. Here we present new high-qualityspectrophotometric observations of 20 Galactic planetary nebulae withspectral coverage from 3700 to 9600 Å. A major feature of ourobservations throughout the entire study has been the inclusion of thenear-infrared lines of [S III] λλ9069, 9532, which allowsus to calculate accurate S+2 abundances and to either improveupon or convincingly confirm results of earlier sulfur abundancestudies. For each of the 20 objects here, we calculate ratios of S/O,Cl/O, and Ar/O and find average values ofS/O=(1.1+/-1.1)×10-2,Cl/O=(4.2+/-5.3)×10-4, andAr/O=(5.7+/-4.3)×10-3. For six objects, we are able tocompare abundances of S+3 calculated directly from available[S IV] 10.5 μm measurements with those inferred indirectly from thevalues of the ionization correction factors for sulfur. In the finalpaper of the series, we will compile results from all 86 objects, searchfor and evaluate trends, and use chemical evolution models to interpretour results. Gas temperature and excitation classes in planetary nebulaeEmpirical methods to estimate the elemental abundances in planetarynebulae usually use the temperatures derived from the [O III] and [N II]emission-line ratios, respectively, for the high- and low-ionizationzones. However, for a large number of objects these values may not beavailable. In order to overcome this difficulty and allow a betterdetermination of abundances, we discuss the relationship between thesetwo temperatures. Although a correlation is not easily seen when asample of different PNe types is used, the situation is improved whenthey are gathered into excitation classes. From [OII]/[OIII] andHeII/HeI line ratios, we define four excitation classes. Then, usingstandard photoionization models which fit most of the data, a linearrelation between the two temperatures is obtained for each of the fourexcitation classes. The method is applied to several objects for whichonly one temperature can be obtained from the observed emission linesand is tested by recalculation of the radial abundance gradient of theGalaxy using a larger number of PNe. We verified that our previousgradient results, obtained with a smaller sample of planetary nebulae,are not changed, indicating that the temperature relation obtained fromthe photoionization models are a good approximation, and thecorresponding statistical error decreases as expected. Tables 3-5, 7 and9 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Study of electron density in planetary nebulae. A comparison of different density indicatorsWe present a comparison of electron density estimates for planetarynebulae based on different emission-line ratios. We have considered thedensity indicators [O Ii]lambda 3729/lambda 3726, [S Ii]lambda6716/lambda 6731, [Cl Iii]lambda 5517/lambda 5537, [Ar Iv]lambda4711/lambda 4740, C Iii]lambda 1906/lambda 1909 and [N I]lambda5202/lambda 5199. The observational data were extracted from theliterature. We have found systematic deviations from the densityhomogeneous models, in the sense that: Ne(ion {N}i) <~Ne(ion {O}{ii}) < Ne(ion {S}{ii}, ion {C}{iii},ion {Cl}{iii} or ion {Ar}{iv}) and Ne(ion {S}{ii}) ~Ne(ion {C}{iii}) ~ Ne(ion {Cl}{iii}) ~Ne(ion {Ar}{iv}). We argue that the lower [O Ii] densityestimates are likely due to errors in the atomic parameters used. Helium contamination from the progenitor stars of planetary nebulae: The He/H radial gradient and the ΔY / ΔZ enrichment ratioIn this work, two aspects of the chemical evolution of 4He inthe Galaxy are considered on the basis of a sample of disk planetarynebulae (PN). First, an application of corrections owing to thecontamination of 4He from the evolution of the progenitorstars shows that the He/H abundance by number of atoms is reduced by0.012 to 0.015 in average, leading to an essentially flat He/H radialdistribution. Second, a determination of the helium to heavy elementenrichment ratio using the same corrections leads to values in the range2.8 < ΔY / ΔZ < 3.6 for Y p = 0.23 and 2.0< ΔY / ΔZ < 2.8 for Y p = 0.24, in goodagreement with recent independent determinations and theoretical models. The distance scale of planetary nebulaeBy collecting distances from the literature, a set of 73 planetarynebulae with mean distances of high accuracy is derived. This sample isused for recalibration of the mass-radius relationship, used by manystatistical distance methods. An attempt to correct for a statisticalpeculiarity, where errors in the distances influences the mass-radiusrelationship by increasing its slope, has been made for the first time.Distances to PNe in the Galactic Bulge, derived by this new method aswell as other statistical methods from the last decade, are then usedfor the evaluation of these methods as distance indicators. In order ofachieving a Bulge sample that is free from outliers we derive newcriteria for Bulge membership. These criteria are much more stringentthan those used hitherto, in the sense that they also discriminateagainst background objects. By splitting our Bulge sample in two, onewith optically thick (small) PNe and one with optically thin (large)PNe, we find that our calibration is of higher accuracy than most othercalibrations. Differences between the two subsamples, we believe, aredue to the incompleteness of the Bulge sample, as well as the dominanceof optical diameters in the thin'' sample and radio diameters in thethick'' sample. Our final conclusion is that statistical methods givedistances that are at least as accurate as the ones obtained from manyindividual methods. Also, the `long'' distance scale of Galactic PNe isconfirmed.
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 Constellation: Sagittarius Right ascension: 18h13m45.14s Declination: -19Â°04'33.7" Apparent magnitude: 12

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 Proper Names (Edit) NGC 2000.0 NGC 6567 → Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR