Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 6703



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

The Ages of Elliptical Galaxies from Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions
The mean ages of early-type galaxies obtained from the analysis ofoptical spectra give a mean age of 8 Gyr at z=0, with 40% being youngerthan 6 Gyr. Independent age determinations are possible by usinginfrared spectra (5-21 μm), which we have obtained with the InfraredSpectrograph on Spitzer. This age indicator is based on the collectivemass-loss rate of stars, in which mass loss from AGB stars produces asilicate emission feature at 9-12 μm. This feature decreases morerapidly than the shorter wavelength continuum as a stellar populationages, providing an age indicator. From observations of 30 nearbyearly-type galaxies, 29 show a spectral energy distribution dominated bystars, and one has significant emission from the ISM and is excluded.The infrared age indicators for the 29 galaxies show them all to be old,with a mean age of about 10 Gyr and a standard deviation of only a fewGyr. This is consistent with the ages inferred from the values ofM/LB, but is inconsistent with the ages derived from theoptical line indices, which can be much younger. All of these ageindicators are luminosity weighted and should be correlated, even ifmultiple-age components are considered. The inconsistency indicates thatthere is a significant problem with either the infrared and theM/LB ages, which agree, or with the ages inferred from theoptical absorption lines.

Stellar Populations in Nearby Lenticular Galaxies
We have obtained two-dimensional spectral data for a sample of 58 nearbyS0 galaxies with the Multi-Pupil Fiber/Field Spectrograph of the 6 mtelescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the RussianAcademy of Sciences. The Lick indices Hβ, Mg b, and arecalculated separately for the nuclei and for the bulges taken as therings between R=4'' and 7", and the luminosity-weighted ages,metallicities, and Mg/Fe ratios of the stellar populations are estimatedby comparing the data to single stellar population (SSP) models. Fourtypes of galaxy environments are considered: clusters, centers ofgroups, other places in groups, and the field. The nuclei are found tobe on average slightly younger than the bulges in any type ofenvironment, and the bulges of S0 galaxies in sparse environments areyounger than those in dense environments. The effect can be partlyattributed to the well-known age correlation with the stellar velocitydispersion in early-type galaxies (in our sample the galaxies in sparseenvironments are on average less massive than those in denseenvironments), but for the most massive S0 galaxies, withσ*=170-220 km s-1, the age dependence on theenvironment is still significant at the confidence level of 1.5 σ.Based on observations collected with the 6 m telescope (BTA) at theSpecial Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy ofSciences (RAS).

A radio census of nuclear activity in nearby galaxies
In order to determine the incidence of black hole accretion-drivennuclear activity in nearby galaxies, as manifested by their radioemission, we have carried out a high-resolution Multi-ElementRadio-Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) survey of LINERs andcomposite LINER/Hii galaxies from a complete magnitude-limited sample ofbright nearby galaxies (Palomar sample) with unknown arcsecond-scaleradio properties. There are fifteen radio detections, of which three arenew subarcsecond-scale radio core detections, all being candidate AGN.The detected galaxies supplement the already known low-luminosity AGN -low-luminosity Seyferts, LINERs and composite LINER/Hii galaxies - inthe Palomar sample. Combining all radio-detected Seyferts, LINERs andcomposite LINER/Hii galaxies (LTS sources), we obtain an overall radiodetection rate of 54% (22% of all bright nearby galaxies) and weestimate that at least ~50% (~20% of all bright nearby galaxies) aretrue AGN. The radio powers of the LTS galaxies allow the construction ofa local radio luminosity function. By comparing the luminosity functionwith those of selected moderate-redshift AGN, selected from the 2dF/NVSSsurvey, we find that LTS sources naturally extend the RLF of powerfulAGN down to powers of about 10 times that of Sgr A*.

Mass-to-light ratio gradients in early-type galaxy haloes
Owing to the fact that the near future should see a rapidly expandingset of probes of the halo masses of individual early-type galaxies, weintroduce a convenient parameter for characterizing the halo masses fromboth observational and theoretical results:∇lΥ, the logarithmic radial gradient of themass-to-light ratio. Using halo density profiles from Λ-cold darkmatter (CDM) simulations, we derive predictions for this gradient forvarious galaxy luminosities and star formation efficienciesɛSF. As a pilot study, we assemble the available∇lΥ data from kinematics in early-type galaxies- representing the first unbiased study of halo masses in a wide rangeof early-type galaxy luminosities - and find a correlation betweenluminosity and ∇lΥ, such that the brightestgalaxies appear the most dark-matter dominated. We find that thegradients in most of the brightest galaxies may fit in well with theΛCDM predictions, but that there is also a population of faintergalaxies whose gradients are so low as to imply an unreasonably highstar formation efficiency ɛSF > 1. This difficultyis eased if dark haloes are not assumed to have the standard ΛCDMprofiles, but lower central concentrations.

The stellar populations of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei - III. Spatially resolved spectral properties
In a recently completed survey of the stellar population properties oflow-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) and LINER/HIItransition objects (TOs), we have identified a numerous class ofgalactic nuclei which stand out because of their conspicuous108-9 yr populations, traced by high-order Balmer absorptionlines and other stellar indices. These objects are called `young-TOs',because they all have TO-like emission-line ratios. In this paper weextend this previous work, which concentrated on the nuclear properties,by investigating the radial variations of spectral properties inlow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our analysis is based onhigh signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectra in the 3500-5500Å interval for a sample of 47 galaxies. The data probe distancesof typically up to 850 pc from the nucleus with a resolution of ~100 pc(~1 arcsec) and S/N ~ 30. Stellar population gradients are mapped by theradial profiles of absorption-line equivalent widths and continuumcolours along the slit. These variations are further analysed by meansof a decomposition of each spectrum in terms of template galaxiesrepresentative of very young (<=107 yr), intermediate age(108-9 yr) and old (1010 yr) stellar populations.This study reveals that young-TOs also differ from old-TOs andold-LINERs in terms of the spatial distributions of their stellarpopulations and dust. Specifically, our main findings are as follows.(i) Significant stellar population gradients are found almostexclusively in young-TOs. (ii) The intermediate age population ofyoung-TOs, although heavily concentrated in the nucleus, reachesdistances of up to a few hundred pc from the nucleus. Nevertheless, thehalf width at half-maximum of its brightness profile is more typically100 pc or less. (iii) Objects with predominantly old stellar populationspresent spatially homogeneous spectra, be they LINERs or TOs. (iv)Young-TOs have much more dust in their central regions than otherLLAGNs. (v) The B-band luminosities of the central <~1 Gyr populationin young-TOs are within an order of magnitude of MB=-15,implying masses of the order of ~107-108Msolar. This population was 10-100 times more luminous in itsformation epoch, at which time young massive stars would have completelyoutshone any active nucleus, unless the AGN too was brighter in thepast.

Mid-Infrared Emission from Elliptical Galaxies: Sensitivity to Stellar Age
Mid-infrared observations (3.6-24 μm) of normal giant ellipticalgalaxies with the Spitzer Space Telescope are consistent with purepopulations of very old stars with no evidence of younger stars. Most ofthe stars in giant elliptical galaxies are old, but the mean stellar agedetermined from Balmer absorption in optical spectra can appear muchyounger due to a small admixture of younger stars. The mean stellar agecan also be determined from the spectral energy distribution in themid-infrared, which decreases with time relative to the optical emissionand shifts to shorter wavelengths. The observed flux ratiosF8μm/F3.6μm andF24μm/F3.6μm for elliptical galaxies withthe oldest Balmer line ages are lower than predicted by recent models ofsingle stellar populations. For elliptical galaxies with the youngestBalmer line ages in our sample, 3-5 Gyr, the flux ratiosF24μm/F3.6μm are identical to those of theoldest stars. When theoretical mid-IR spectra of old (12 Gyr) and youngstellar populations are combined, errors in theF24μm/F3.6μm observations are formallyinconsistent with a mass fraction of young stars that exceeds ~1%. Thisis less than the fraction of young stars expected in discussions ofrecent surveys of elliptical galaxies at higher redshifts. However, thisinconsistency between Balmer line ages and those inferred from mid-IRobservations must be regarded as provisional until more accurateobservations and theoretical spectra become available. Finally, there isno evidence to date that central disks or patches of dust commonlyvisible in optical images of elliptical galaxies contribute sensibly tothe mid-IR spectrum.

On the Relation between Circular Velocity and Central Velocity Dispersion in High and Low Surface Brightness Galaxies
In order to investigate the correlation between the circular velocityVc and the central velocity dispersion of the spheroidalcomponent σc, we analyzed these quantities for a sampleof 40 high surface brightness (HSB) disk galaxies, eight giant lowsurface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies, and 24 elliptical galaxiescharacterized by flat rotation curves. Galaxies have been selected tohave a velocity gradient <=2 km s-1 kpc-1 forR>=0.35R25. We used these data to better define theprevious Vc-σc correlation for spiralgalaxies (which turned out to be HSB) and elliptical galaxies,especially at the lower end of the σc values. We findthat the Vc-σc relation is described by alinear law out to velocity dispersions as low as σc~50km s-1, while in previous works a power law was adopted forgalaxies with σc>80 km s-1. Ellipticalgalaxies with Vc based on dynamical models or directlyderived from the H I rotation curves follow the same relation as the HSBgalaxies in the Vc-σc plane. On the otherhand, the LSB galaxies follow a different relation, since most of themshow either higher Vc or lower σc withrespect to the HSB galaxies. This argues against the relevance of baryoncollapse to the radial density profile of the dark matter halos of LSBgalaxies. Moreover, if the Vc-σc relation isequivalent to one between the mass of the dark matter halo and that ofthe supermassive black hole, then these results suggest that the LSBgalaxies host a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with a smaller masscompared to HSB galaxies with an equal dark matter halo. On the otherhand, if the fundamental correlation of SMBH mass is with the halocircular velocity, then LSB galaxies should have larger black holemasses for a given bulge dispersion. Elliptical galaxies withVc derived from H I data and LSB galaxies were not consideredin previous studies.Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory telescopesat the Paranal Observatory under programs 67.B-0283, 69.B-0573, and70.B-0171.

The Epochs of Early-Type Galaxy Formation as a Function of Environment
The aim of this paper is to set constraints on the epochs of early-typegalaxy formation through the ``archaeology'' of the stellar populationsin local galaxies. Using our models of absorption-line indices thataccount for variable abundance ratios, we derive ages, totalmetallicities, and element ratios of 124 early-type galaxies in high-and low-density environments. The data are analyzed by comparison withmock galaxy samples created through Monte Carlo simulations taking thetypical average observational errors into account, in order to eliminateartifacts caused by correlated errors. We find that all threeparameters, age, metallicity, and α/Fe ratio, are correlated withvelocity dispersion. We show that these results are robust againstrecent revisions of the local abundance pattern at high metallicities.To recover the observed scatter we need to assume an intrinsic scatterof about 20% in age, 0.08 dex in [Z/H], and 0.05 dex in [α/Fe].All low-mass objects withM*<~1010Msolar (σ<~130kms-1) show evidence for the presence of intermediate-agestellar populations with low α/Fe ratios. About 20% of theintermediate-mass objects with1010<~M*/Msolar<~1011[110<~σ/(kms-1)<~230 both elliptical andlenticular galaxies] must have either a young subpopulation or a bluehorizontal branch. On the basis of the above relationships, valid forthe bulk of the sample, we show that the Mg-σ relation is mainlydriven by metallicity, with similar contributions from the α/Feratio (23%) and age (17%). We further find evidence for an influence ofthe environment on the stellar population properties. Massive early-typegalaxies in low-density environments seem on average ~2 Gyr younger andslightly (~0.05-0.1 dex) more metal-rich than their counterparts inhigh-density environments. No offsets in the α/Fe ratios areinstead detected. With the aid of a simple chemical evolution model, wetranslate the derived ages and α/Fe ratios into star formationhistories. We show that most star formation activity in early-typegalaxies is expected to have happened between redshifts ~3 and 5 inhigh-density environments and between redshifts 1 and 2 in low-densityenvironments. We conclude that at least 50% of the total stellar massdensity must have already formed at z~1, in good agreement withobservational estimates of the total stellar mass density as a functionof redshift. Our results suggest that significant mass growth in theearly-type galaxy population below z~1 must be restricted to lessmassive objects, and a significant increase of the stellar mass densitybetween redshifts 1 and 2 should be present, caused mainly by the fieldgalaxy population. The results of this paper further imply the presenceof vigorous star formation episodes in massive objects at z~2-5 andevolved elliptical galaxies around z~1, both observationally identifiedas SCUBA galaxies and extremely red objects, respectively.

Star Formation Histories of Nearby Elliptical Galaxies. I. Volume-Limited Sample
This work presents high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observationsof a representative sample of nearby elliptical galaxies. Theseobservations provide a strong test of models for the formation ofelliptical galaxies and their star formation histories. Combining thesedata with the González data set, a volume-limited sample of 45galaxies has been defined. Results are in agreement with previousstudies: the existence of the metallicity hyperplane and the Z-plane ofTrager and coworkers is confirmed, and the distribution is clearly dueto physical variations in stellar population parameters and notmeasurement uncertainty. Trends between stellar population parametersand galaxy structural parameters suggest that angular momentum maydetermine the chemical abundance of a galaxy at a given mass.

Multicolor Surface Photometry of Lenticular Galaxies. I. The Data
We present multicolor surface and aperture photometry in the B, V, R,and K' bands for a sample of 34 lenticular galaxies from the UppsalaGeneral Catalogue. From surface photometric analysis, we obtain radialprofiles of surface brightness, colors, ellipticity, position angle, andthe Fourier coefficients that describe the departure of isophotal shapesfrom a purely elliptical form; we find the presence of dust lanes,patches, and ringlike structure in several galaxies in the sample. Weobtain total integrated magnitudes and colors and find that these are ingood agreement with the values from the Third Reference Catalogue.Isophotal colors are correlated with each other, following the sequenceexpected for early-type galaxies. The color gradients in lenticulargalaxies are more negative than the corresponding gradients inelliptical galaxies. There is a good correlation between B-V and B-Rcolor gradients, and the mean gradients in the B-V, B-R, and V-K' colorsare -0.13+/-0.06, -0.18+/-0.06, and -0.25+/-0.11 mag dex-1 inradius, respectively.

A dichotomy in the orientation of dust and radio jets in nearby low-power radio galaxies
We examine the properties of central dust in nearby quiescent and activeearly-type galaxies. The active galaxies are low-power radio galaxieswith Fanaroff & Riley type I or I/II radio jets. We focus on (a) thecomparison of the dust distributions in the active and quiescent galaxysamples; and (b) the relation between the radio jet and dustorientations. Our main observational conclusions are: (i) in line withprevious studies, the dust detection rate is higher in radio-jetgalaxies than in non radio-jet galaxies; (ii) radio galaxies contain ahigher fraction of regular dust “ellipses” compared toquiescent galaxies which contain more often irregular dustdistributions; (iii) the morphology, size and orientation of dustellipses and lanes in quiescent early-types and active early-types withkpc-scale radio jets is very similar; (iv) dust ellipses are alignedwith the major axis of the galaxy, dust lanes do not show a preferredalignment except for large (>kpc) dust lanes which are aligned withthe minor axis of the galaxy; and (v) as projected on the sky, jets donot show a preferred orientation relative to the galaxy major axis (andhence dust ellipses), but jets are preferentially perpendicular to dustlanes. We show that the dust ellipses are consistent with being nearlycircular thin disks viewed at random viewing angles. The lanes arelikely warped dust structures, which may be in the process of settlingdown to become regular disks or are being perturbed by anon-gravitational force. We use the observed dust-jet orientations toconstrain the three-dimensional angle θDJ between jetand dust. For dust-lane galaxies, the jet is approximately perpendicularto the dust structure, while for dust-ellipse galaxies there is a muchwider distribution of θDJ. We discuss two scenariosthat could explain the dust/jet/galaxy orientation dichotomy. If lanesare indeed settling, then the jet orientation apparently is roughlyaligned with the angular momentum of the dust before it settles. Iflanes are perturbed by a jet-related force, it appears that it causesthe dust to move out of its equilibrium plane in the galaxy into a planewhich is perpendicular to the jet.

The Stellar Populations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Observations
We present a study of the stellar populations of low-luminosity activegalactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our goal is to search for spectroscopicsignatures of young and intermediate-age stars and to investigate theirrelationship with the ionization mechanism in LLAGNs. The method used isbased on the stellar population synthesis of the optical continuum ofthe innermost (20-100 pc) regions in these galaxies. For this purpose,we have collected high spatial resolution optical (2900-5700 Å)STIS spectra of 28 nearby LLAGNs that are available in the Hubble SpaceTelescope archive. The analysis of these data is compared with a similaranalysis also presented here for 51 ground-based spectra of LLAGNs. Ourmain findings are as follows: (1) No features due to Wolf-Rayet starswere convincingly detected in the STIS spectra. (2) Young starscontribute very little to the optical continuum in the ground-basedaperture. However, the fraction of light provided by these stars ishigher than 10% in most of the weak-[O I] ([OI]/Hα<=0.25) LLAGNSTIS spectra. (3) Intermediate-age stars contribute significantly to theoptical continuum of these nuclei. This population is more frequent inobjects with weak than with strong [O I]. Weak-[O I] LLAGNs that haveyoung stars stand out for their intermediate-age population. (4) Most ofthe strong-[O I] LLAGNs have predominantly old stellar population. A fewof these objects also show a featureless continuum that contributessignificantly to the optical continuum. These results suggest that youngand intermediate-age stars do not play a significant role in theionization of LLAGNs with strong [O I]. However, the ionization inweak-[O I] LLAGNs with young and/or intermediate-age populations couldbe due to stellar processes. A comparison of the properties of theseobjects with Seyfert 2 galaxies that harbor a nuclear starburst suggeststhat weak-[O I] LLAGNs are the lower luminosity counterparts of theSeyfert 2 composite nuclei.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555. Based on observations made with the Nordic OpticalTelescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark,Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio delRoque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica deCanarias.

The Stellar Populations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Ground-based Observations
We present a spectroscopic study of the stellar populations oflow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our main goal is todetermine whether the stars that live in the innermost (100 pc scale)regions of these galaxies are in some way related to the emission-lineproperties, which would imply a link between the stellar population andthe ionization mechanism. High signal-to-noise ratio, ground-basedlong-slit spectra in the 3500-5500 Å interval were collected for60 galaxies: 51 LINERs and LINER/H II transition objects, two starburstgalaxies, and seven nonactive galaxies. In this paper, the first of aseries, we (1) describe the sample; (2) present the nuclear spectra; (3)characterize the stellar populations of LLAGNs by means of an empiricalcomparison with normal galaxies; (4) measure a set of spectral indices,including several absorption-line equivalent widths and colorsindicative of stellar populations; and (5) correlate the stellar indiceswith emission-line ratios that may distinguish between possibleexcitation sources for the gas. Our main findings are as follows: (1)Few LLAGNs have a detectable young (<~107 yr) starburstcomponent, indicating that very massive stars do not contributesignificantly to the optical continuum. In particular, no features dueto Wolf-Rayet stars were convincingly detected. (2) High-order Balmerabsorption lines of H I (HOBLs), on the other hand, are detected in ~40%of LLAGNs. These features, which are strongest in108-109 yr intermediate-age stellar populations,are accompanied by diluted metal absorption lines and bluer colors thanother objects in the sample. (3) These intermediate-age populations arevery common (~50%) in LLAGNs with relatively weak [O I] emission([OI]/Hα<=0.25) but rare (~10%) in LLAGNs with stronger [O I].This is intriguing since LLAGNs with weak [O I] have been previouslyhypothesized to be ``transition objects'' in which both an AGN and youngstars contribute to the emission-line excitation. Massive stars, ifpresent, are completely outshone by intermediate-age and old stars inthe optical. This happens in at least a couple of objects whereindependent UV spectroscopy detects young starbursts not seen in theoptical. (4) Objects with predominantly old stars span the whole rangeof [O I]/Hα values, but (5) sources with significant young and/orintermediate-age populations are nearly all (~90%) weak-[O I] emitters.These new findings suggest a link between the stellar populations andthe gas ionization mechanism. The strong-[O I] objects are most likelytrue LLAGNs, with stellar processes being insignificant. However, theweak-[O I] objects may comprise two populations, one where theionization is dominated by stellar processes and another where it isgoverned by either an AGN or a more even mixture of stellar and AGNprocesses. Possible stellar sources for the ionization include weakstarbursts, supernova remnants, and evolved poststarburst populations.These scenarios are examined and constrained by means of complementaryobservations and detailed modeling of the stellar populations inforthcoming communications.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operatedon the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway,and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos ofthe Instituto de Astrofísica de Canárias.

Difficulties with Recovering the Masses of Supermassive Black Holes from Stellar Kinematical Data
We investigate the ability of three-integral, axisymmetric, orbit-basedmodeling algorithms to recover the parameters defining the gravitationalpotential (mass-to-light ratio Υ and black hole massM•) in spheroidal stellar systems using stellarkinematical data. We show that the potential estimation problem isgenerically underdetermined when applied to long-slit kinematical dataof the kind used for most black hole mass determinations to date. Arange of parameters (Υ, M•) can provide equallygood fits to the data, making it impossible to assign best-fit values.The indeterminacy arises from the large variety of orbital solutionsthat are consistent with a given mass model. We demonstrate theindeterminacy using a variety of data sets derived from realisticmodels, as well as published observations of the galaxy M32. Theindeterminacy becomes apparent only when a sufficiently large number ofdistinct orbits are supplied to the modeling algorithm; if too feworbits are used, spurious minima appear in theχ2(Υ,M•) contours, and these minimado not necessarily coincide with the parameters defining thegravitational potential. We show that the range of degeneracy inM• depends on the degree to which the data resolve theradius of influence rh of the black hole. ForFWHM/2rh>~0.5, where FWHM refers to the instrumentalresolution, we find that only very weak constraints can be placed onM•. In the case of M32, our reanalysis demonstrates thatwhen a large orbit library is used, data published prior to 2000(FWHM/2rh~0.25) are equally consistent with black hole massesin the range1.5×106Msolar

Near-infrared imaging of ellipticals: surface brightness profiles and photometry
We present near-infrared K-band imaging of a large sample of candidatemerger remnant galaxies and Hickson Compact Group ellipticals. We derivelight profile indices, effective radii and surface brightnesses, as wellas total K-band magnitudes. We find that the light distributions of themerger remnant candidates are consistent with those of `normal'ellipticals, and scatter around a mean profile index of (1/n) = 0.20.Many of our sample galaxies have surface brightness profiles that arenot well described by a de Vaucouleurs law (1/n= 0.25), and we discussthe implications of this on the derived total magnitudes. Comparing thetotal K magnitudes calculated by extrapolating a de Vaucouleurs profileand those derived using a generalized Sérsic form, we find that asignificant bias is introduced if the de Vaucouleurs law is not a gooddescription of the actual light profile.

Metallicity distributions of globular cluster systems in galaxies
We collected a sample of 100 galaxies for which different observers havedetermined colour indices of globular cluster candidates. The sampleincludes representatives of galaxies of various morphological types anddifferent luminosities. Colour indices (in most cases (V-I), but also(B-I) and (C-T_1)) were transformed into metallicities [Fe/H] accordingto a relation by Kissler-Patig (1998). These data were analysed with theKMM software in order to estimate similarity of the distribution withuni- or bimodal Gaussian distribution. We found that 45 of 100 systemshave bimodal metallicity distributions. Mean metallicity of themetal-poor component for these galaxies is < [Fe/H]> = -1.40 +/-0.02, of the metal-rich component < [Fe/H]> = -0.69 +/- 0.03.Dispersions of the distributions are 0.15 and 0.18, respectively.Distribution of unimodal metallicities is rather wide. These data willbe analysed in a subsequent paper in order to find correlations withparameters of galaxies and galactic environment.

Dust and the Infrared Kinematic Properties of Early-Type Galaxies
We have obtained spectra and measured the stellar kinematics in a sampleof 25 nearby early-type galaxies (with velocity dispersions from lessthan 100 km s-1 to over 300 km s-1) using thenear-infrared CO absorption band head at 2.29 μm. Our medianuncertainty for the dispersions is ~10%. We examine the effects of duston existing optical kinematic measurements. We find that thenear-infrared velocity dispersions are, in general, smaller than opticalvelocity dispersions, with differences as large as 30%. The mediandifference is 11% smaller, and the effect is of greater magnitude forhigher dispersion galaxies. The lenticular galaxies (18 out of 25)appear to be causing the shift to lower dispersions, while the classicalelliptical galaxies (7 out of 25) are consistent between the twowavelength regimes. If uniformly distributed dust causes thesedifferences, we would expect to find a correlation between the relativeamount of dust in a galaxy and the fractional change in dispersion, butwe do not find such a correlation. We do see correlations between bothvelocity dispersion and CO band head equivalent width, and velocitydispersion and Mg2 index. The differences in dispersion arenot well explained by current models of dust absorption. The lack ofcorrelation between the relative amount of dust and shift in dispersionpossibly suggests that dust does not have a similar distribution fromgalaxy to galaxy. The CO equivalent widths of these galaxies are quitehigh (>~10 Å for almost all), requiring the light at thesewavelengths to be dominated by very cool stars.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

A SAURON study of M32: measuring the intrinsic flattening and the central black hole mass
We present dynamical models of the nearby compact elliptical galaxy M32,using high-quality kinematic measurements, obtained with theintegral-field spectrograph SAURON mounted on the William HerschelTelescope on La Palma. We also include STIS data obtained previously byJoseph et al. We find a best-fitting black hole mass ofM•= (2.5 +/- 0.5) × 106Msolar and a stellar I-band mass-to-light ratio of (1.85 +/-0.15) Msolar/Lsolar. For the first time, we arealso able to constrain the inclination along which M32 is observed to70°+/- 5°. Assuming that M32 is indeed axisymmetric, theaveraged observed flattening of 0.73 then corresponds to an intrinsicflattening of 0.68 +/- 0.03. These tight constraints are mainly causedby the use of integral-field data. We show this quantitatively bycomparing with models that are constrained by multiple slits only. Weshow the phase-space distribution and intrinsic velocity structure ofthe best-fitting model and investigate the effect of regularization onthe orbit distribution.

A catalogue and analysis of local galaxy ages and metallicities
We have assembled a catalogue of relative ages, metallicities andabundance ratios for about 150 local galaxies in field, group andcluster environments. The galaxies span morphological types from cD andellipticals, to late-type spirals. Ages and metallicities were estimatedfrom high-quality published spectral line indices using Worthey &Ottaviani (1997) single stellar population evolutionary models. Theidentification of galaxy age as a fourth parameter in the fundamentalplane (Forbes, Ponman & Brown 1998) is confirmed by our largersample of ages. We investigate trends between age and metallicity, andwith other physical parameters of the galaxies, such as ellipticity,luminosity and kinematic anisotropy. We demonstrate the existence of agalaxy age-metallicity relation similar to that seen for local galacticdisc stars, whereby young galaxies have high metallicity, while oldgalaxies span a large range in metallicities. We also investigate theinfluence of environment and morphology on the galaxy age andmetallicity, especially the predictions made by semi-analytichierarchical clustering models (HCM). We confirm that non-clusterellipticals are indeed younger on average than cluster ellipticals aspredicted by the HCM models. However we also find a trend for the moreluminous galaxies to have a higher [Mg/Fe] ratio than the lowerluminosity galaxies, which is opposite to the expectation from HCMmodels.

The Colors of Globular Clusters
A compilation has been made of available data on the ratio of the numberof metal-rich ([Fe/H]>-1.0) to metal-poor ([Fe/H]<-1.0) clustersin various globular cluster systems. Among early-type galaxies of typesE, E/S0, and S0, the ratio of blue to red globular clusters is found tovary by almost 2 orders of magnitude. The data suggest that cD galaxieshave the widest range of evolutionary histories. The fraction ofmetal-rich red clusters is largest among early-type galaxies and appearsto decrease toward later Hubble types.

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

A synthesis of data from fundamental plane and surface brightness fluctuation surveys
We perform a series of comparisons between distance-independentphotometric and spectroscopic properties used in the surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) and fundamental plane (FP) methods of early-typegalaxy distance estimation. The data are taken from two recent surveys:the SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances and the Streaming Motions of AbellClusters (SMAC) FP survey. We derive a relation between(V-I)0 colour and Mg2 index using nearly 200galaxies and discuss implications for Galactic extinction estimates andearly-type galaxy stellar populations. We find that the reddenings fromSchlegel et al. for galaxies with E(B-V)>~0.2mag appear to beoverestimated by 5-10 per cent, but we do not find significant evidencefor large-scale dipole errors in the extinction map. In comparison withstellar population models having solar elemental abundance ratios, thegalaxies in our sample are generally too blue at a given Mg2;we ascribe this to the well-known enhancement of the α-elements inluminous early-type galaxies. We confirm a tight relation betweenstellar velocity dispersion σ and the SBF `fluctuation count'parameter N, which is a luminosity-weighted measure of the total numberof stars in a galaxy. The correlation between N and σ is eventighter than that between Mg2 and σ. Finally, we deriveFP photometric parameters for 280 galaxies from the SBF survey data set.Comparisons with external sources allow us to estimate the errors onthese parameters and derive the correction necessary to bring them on tothe SMAC system. The data are used in a forthcoming paper, whichcompares the distances derived from the FP and SBF methods.

The globular cluster system of the young elliptical NGC 6702
We study the globular cluster (GC) system of the dust-lane ellipticalgalaxy NGC 6702, using B-, V- and I-band imaging observations carriedout at the Keck telescope. This galaxy has a spectroscopic age of ~2Gyrsuggesting recent star formation. We find strong evidence for a bimodalGC colour distribution, with the blue peak having a colour similar tothat of the Galactic halo GCs. Assuming that the blue GCs are indeed oldand metal-poor, we estimate an age of 2-5Gyr and supersolar metallicityfor the red GC subpopulation. Despite the large uncertainties, this isin reasonable agreement with the spectroscopic galaxy age. Additionally,we estimate a specific frequency of SN=2.3+/-1.1 for NGC6702. We predict that passive evolution of NGC 6702 will furtherincrease its specific frequency to SN~2.7 within 10Gyr, incloser agreement to that of typical present-day ellipticals. We alsodiscuss evidence that the merger/accretion event that took place a fewGyr ago involved a high gas fraction.

On the dependence of spectroscopic indices of early-type galaxies on age, metallicity and velocity dispersion
We investigate the Mg-σ and -σ relations in asample of 72 early-type galaxies drawn mostly from cluster and groupenvironments using a homogeneous data set which is well calibrated on tothe Lick/IDS system. The small intrinsic scatter in Mg at a givenσ gives upper limits on the spread in age and metallicity of 49and 32 per cent respectively, if the spread is attributed to onequantity only, and if the variations in age and metallicity areuncorrelated. The age/metallicity distribution as inferred from theHβ versus diagnostic diagram reinforces this conclusion,as we find mostly galaxies with large luminosity-weighted ages spanninga range in metallicity. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that thegalaxy distribution in the Hβ versus plane cannot bereproduced by a model in which galaxy age is the only parameter drivingthe index-σ relation. In our sample we do not find significantevidence for an anticorrelation of ages and metallicities which wouldkeep the index-σ relations tight while hiding a large spread inage and metallicity. As a result of correlated errors in theage-metallicity plane, a mild age-metallicity anticorrelation cannot becompletely ruled out by the current data. Correcting the line-strengthindices for non-solar abundance ratios, following the recent paper byTrager et al., leads to higher mean metallicity and slightly younger ageestimates while preserving the metallicity sequence. The [Mg/Fe] ratiois mildly correlated with the central velocity dispersion, and rangesfrom [Mg/Fe]=0.05 to 0.3 for galaxies withσ>100kms-1. Under the assumption that there is noage gradient along the index-σ relations, theabundance-ratio-corrected Mg-σ, Fe-σ and Hβ-σrelations give consistent estimates ofΔ[M/H]/Δlogσ~=0.9+/-0.1. The slope of theHβ-σ relation limits a potential age trend as a function ofσ to 2-3Gyr along the sequence.

Mass profiles and anisotropies of early-type galaxies
We discuss the problem of using stellar kinematics of early-typegalaxies to constrain the orbital anisotropies and radial mass profilesof galaxies. We demonstrate that compressing the light distribution of agalaxy along the line of sight produces approximately the same signaturein the line-of-sight velocity profiles as radial anisotropy. Inparticular, fitting spherically symmetric dynamical models to apparentlyround, isotropic face-on flattened galaxies leads to a spurious biastowards radial orbits in the models, especially if the galaxy has a weakface-on stellar disc. Such face-on stellar discs could plausibly be thecause of the radial anisotropy found in spherical models of intermediateluminosity ellipticals such as NGC 2434, 3379 and 6703. In the light ofthis result, we use simple dynamical models to constrain the outer massprofiles of a sample of 18 round, early-type galaxies. The galaxiesfollow a Tully-Fisher relation parallel to that for spiral galaxies, butfainter by at least 0.8mag (I-band) for a given mass. The most luminousgalaxies show clear evidence for the presence of a massive dark halo,but the case for dark haloes in fainter galaxies is more ambiguous. Wediscuss the observations that would be required to resolve thisambiguity.

The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and Distances
We report data for I-band surface brightness fluctuation (SBF)magnitudes, (V-I) colors, and distance moduli for 300 galaxies. Thesurvey contains E, S0, and early-type spiral galaxies in the proportionsof 49:42:9 and is essentially complete for E galaxies to Hubblevelocities of 2000 km s-1, with a substantial sampling of Egalaxies out to 4000 km s-1. The median error in distancemodulus is 0.22 mag. We also present two new results from the survey.(1) We compare the mean peculiar flow velocity (bulk flow) implied byour distances with predictions of typical cold dark matter transferfunctions as a function of scale, and we find very good agreement withcold, dark matter cosmologies if the transfer function scale parameterΓ and the power spectrum normalization σ8 arerelated by σ8Γ-0.5~2+/-0.5. Deriveddirectly from velocities, this result is independent of the distributionof galaxies or models for biasing. This modest bulk flow contradictsreports of large-scale, large-amplitude flows in the ~200 Mpc diametervolume surrounding our survey volume. (2) We present adistance-independent measure of absolute galaxy luminosity, N and showhow it correlates with galaxy properties such as color and velocitydispersion, demonstrating its utility for measuring galaxy distancesthrough large and unknown extinction. Observations in part from theMichigan-Dartmouth-MIT (MDM) Observatory.

New Insights from Hubble Space Telescope Studies of Globular Cluster Systems. II. Analysis of 29 S0 Systems
We examine the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of a sample of 34 S0galaxies from a WFPC2 snapshot survey in the V and I bands. Of these 34galaxies, 29 have measurable globular cluster systems. The mean color ofthe GCSs of individual galaxies vary from V-I=0.85 mag to V-I=1.17 mag.The average color of GCSs in all 29 S0 galaxies, V-I=1.00+/-0.07 mag, issimilar to the value of V-I=1.04+/-0.04 derived for ellipticals in acompanion paper. The mean metallicity of a cluster system is correlatedto the luminosity (or mass) of the host galaxy, but it is not dependenton the Hubble type. Our measurements of the local specific frequency, onthe other hand, confirm that the cluster formation efficiency is afunction of Hubble type. The mean local specific frequency of our samplewithin the WFPC2 field of view is 1.0+/-0.6, lower thanSN(Local)=2.4+/-1.8 derived for ellipticals in a similaranalysis. Although we are able to confirm a bimodal color distributionin only one galaxy from the shallow ``snapshot'' images analyzed in thispaper, statistical tests suggest that 10%-20% of S0s are bimodal at thepresent level of photometric accuracy. There are no significant trendsin GCS properties with membership or location of the S0 host in a galaxycluster. We have measured the turnover luminosity of the globularcluster luminosity function (GCLF) for the richest few GCSs and find theGCLF distances to be in agreement with other estimates. The globularclusters in S0 galaxies have average half-light radii of ~2.6 pc, whichis similar to that of other galaxies, including our own. Based onobservations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at theSpace Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Dynamical Family Properties and Dark Halo Scaling Relations of Giant Elliptical Galaxies
Based on a uniform dynamical analysis of the line-profile shapes of 21mostly luminous, slowly rotating, and nearly round elliptical galaxies,we have investigated the dynamical family relations and dark haloproperties of ellipticals. Our results include: (i) The circularvelocity curves (CVCs) of elliptical galaxies are flat to within ~=10%for R>~0.2Re. (ii) Most ellipticals are moderatelyradially anisotropic; their dynamical structure is surprisingly uniform.(iii) Elliptical galaxies follow a Tully-Fisher (TF) relation withmarginally shallower slope than spiral galaxies, andvmaxc~=300 km s-1 for anL*B galaxy. At given circular velocity, they are~1 mag fainter in B and ~0.6 mag in R and appear to have slightly lowerbaryonic mass than spirals, even for the maximum M/LB allowedby the kinematics. (iv) The luminosity dependence of M/LBindicated by the tilt of the fundamental plane (FP) is confirmed. Thetilt of the FP is not caused by dynamical or photometric nonhomology,although the latter might influence the slope of M/L versus L. It canalso not be due only to an increasing dark matter fraction with L forthe range of IMF currently discussed. It is, however, consistent withstellar population models based on published metallicities and ages. Themain driver is therefore probably metallicity, and a secondarypopulation effect is needed to explain the K-band tilt. (v) Theseresults make it likely that elliptical galaxies have nearly maximalM/LB (minimal halos). (vi) Despite the uniformly flat CVCs,there is a spread in the luminous to dark matter ratio and in cumulativeM/LB(r). Some galaxies have no indication for dark matterwithin 2Re, whereas for others we obtain localM/LB-values of 20-30 at 2Re. (vii) In models withmaximum stellar mass, the dark matter contributes ~10%-40% of the masswithin Re. Equal interior mass of dark and luminous matter ispredicted at ~2-4Re. (viii) Even in these maximum stellarmass models, the halo core densities and phase-space densities are atleast ~25 times larger and the halo core radii ~4 times smaller than inspiral galaxies of the same circular velocity. The increase in M/L setsin at ~10 times larger acceleration than in spirals. This could implythat elliptical galaxy halos collapsed at high redshifts or that some ofthe dark matter in ellipticals might be baryonic.

The Distribution of Stellar Orbits in the Giant Elliptical Galaxy NGC 2320
We present direct observational constraints on the orbital distributionof the stars in the giant elliptical NGC 2320. Long-slit spectra alongmultiple position angles are used to derive the stellar line-of-sightvelocity distribution within one effective radius, Reff. Inaddition, the rotation curve and dispersion profile of an ionized gasdisk are measured from the [O III] emission lines. After correcting forthe asymmetric drift, we derive the circular velocity of the gas, whichprovides an independent constraint on the gravitational potential. Tointerpret the stellar motions, we build axisymmetric three-integraldynamical models based on an extension of the Schwarzschildorbit-superposition technique. We consider two families of gravitationalpotential, one in which the mass follows the light (i.e., no darkmatter) and one with a logarithmic gravitational potential. Usingχ2 statistics, we compare our models to both the stellarand gas data to constrain the value of the V-band mass-to-light ratio,ΥV. We find ΥV=15.0+/-0.6 h75for the mass-follows-light models and ΥV=17.0+/-0.7h75 for the logarithmic models. For the latter,ΥV is defined within a sphere of 15'' radii.Models with radially constant ΥV and logarithmic modelswith dark matter provide comparably good fits to the data and possesssimilar dynamical structure. Across the full range of ΥVpermitted by the observational constraints, the models are radiallyanisotropic in the equatorial plane over the radial range of ourkinematical data (1''<~r<~40''). Along thetrue minor axis, they are more nearly isotropic. The best fitting modelhas σr/σtotal~=0.7,σφ/σtotal~=0.5-0.6, andσθ/σtotal~=0.5 in theequatorial plane. Observations reported in this paper were obtained atthe Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, a facility operated jointlyby the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution, and at theKPNO 4 m telescope which is operated by AURA, Inc. under cooperativeagreement with the National Science Foundation.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:18h47m18.80s
Aparent dimensions:2.57′ × 2.512′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 6703

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR